Enforcement of sentences imposed

Republic of Kenya

Kenya - Criminal Procedure Code 1930 (2018) EN



177. Property found on accused person
Where, upon the apprehension of a person charged with an offence, any property is taken from him, the court before which he is charged may order—
(a) that the property or a part thereof be restored to the person who appears to the court to be entitled thereto, and, if he be the person charged, that it be restored either to him or to such other person as he may direct; or
(b) that the property or a part thereof be applied to the payment of any fine or any costs or compensation directed to be paid by the person charged.

178. Property stolen
(1) If a person guilty of an offence mentioned in Chapters XXVI to XXXI, both inclusive, of the Penal Code (Cap. 63), in stealing, taking, obtaining, extorting, converting or disposing of, or in knowingly receiving, any property, is prosecuted to conviction by or on behalf of the owner of the property, the property shall be restored to the owner or his representative.
(2) In every case referred to in this section, the court before whom the offender is convicted may award from time to time writs of restitution for the property or order the restitution thereof in a summary manner:
Provided that—
(i) where goods as defined in the Sale of Goods Act (Cap. 31) have been obtained by fraud or other wrongful means not amounting to stealing, the property in the goods shall not revest in the person who was the owner of the goods, or his personal representative, by reason only of the conviction of the offender;
(ii) nothing in this section shall apply to the case of a valuable security which has been in good faith paid or discharged by a person liable to the payment thereof, or, being a negotiable instrument, has been taken or received in good faith by transfer or delivery by a person for a just and valuable consideration without notice or without reasonable cause to suspect that it has been stolen.
(3) On the restitution of stolen property, if it appears to the court by the evidence that the offender has sold the stolen property to a person, and that that person has had no knowledge that it was stolen, and that moneys have been taken from the offender on his apprehension, the court may, on the application of the purchaser, order that out of those moneys a sum not exceeding the amount of the proceeds of the sale be delivered to the purchaser.
(4) The operation of an order under this section shall (unless the court before which the conviction takes place directs to the contrary in any case in which the title to the property is not in dispute) be suspended—
(a) in any case, until the time for appeal has elapsed; and
(b) in a case where an appeal is lodged, until the determination of the appeal, and in cases where the operation of any such order is suspended until the determination of the appeal, the order shall not take effect as to the property in question if the conviction is quashed on appeal.
(5) The Chief Justice may make rules for securing the safe custody of property, pending the suspension of the operation of an order made under this section.
(6) A person aggrieved by an order made under this section may appeal to the High Court, and upon the hearing of the appeal the court may by order annul or vary an order made on a trial for the restitution of property to any person, although the conviction is not quashed; and the order, if annulled, shall not take effect, and, if varied, shall take effect as so varied.
(7) In this section and in section 177, “property” includes, in the case of property regarding which the offence appears to have been committed, not only property which was originally in the possession or under the control of a person but also property into which or for which it may have been converted or exchanged and anything acquired by the conversion or exchange whether immediately or otherwise.



333. Warrant in case of sentence of imprisonment
(1) A warrant under the hand of the judge or magistrate by whom a person is sentenced to imprisonment, ordering that the sentence shall be carried out in any prison within Kenya, shall be issued by the sentencing judge or magistrate, and shall be full authority to the officer in charge of the prison and to all other persons for carrying into effect the sentence described in the warrant, not being a sentence of death.
(2) Subject to the provisions of section 38 of the Penal Code (Cap. 63) every sentence shall be deemed to commence from, and to include the whole of the day of, the date on which it was pronounced, except where otherwise provided in this Code.
Provided that where the person sentenced under subsection (1) has, prior to such sentence, been held in custody, the sentence shall take account of the period spent in custody.



334. Warrant for levy of fine, etc.
(1) When a court orders money to be paid by an accused person or by a prosecutor or complainant for fine, penalty, compensation, costs, expenses or otherwise, the money may be levied on the movable and immovable property of the person ordered to pay it by distress and sale under warrant; but if he shows sufficient movable property to satisfy the order his immovable property shall not be sold.
(2) The person may pay or tender to the officer having the execution of the warrant the sum therein mentioned together with the amount of the expenses of the distress up to the time of payment or tender, and thereupon the officer shall cease to execute it.
(3) A warrant under this section may be executed within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court issuing it, and it shall authorize the distress and sale of property belonging to the person without those limits when endorsed by a magistrate holding a subordinate court of the first or second class within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property was found.



335. Objections to attachment
(1) Any person claiming to be entitled to or to have a legal or equitable interest in the whole or part of property attached in execution of a warrant issued under section 334 may, at any time prior to the receipt by the court of the proceeds of sale of that property, give notice in writing to the court of his objection to the attachment of the property; and the notice shall set out shortly the nature of the claim which the person (hereafter in this section referred to as the objector) makes to the whole or part of the property attached, and shall certify the value of the property claimed by him, and the value shall be deposed to upon affidavit, which shall be filed with the notice.
(2) Upon receipt of a valid notice given under subsection (1), the court shall, by an order in writing addressed to the officer having the execution of the warrant, direct the stay of the execution proceedings.
(3) Upon the issue of an order under subsection (2), the court shall, by notice in writing, direct the objector to appear before it and establish his claim upon a date to be specified in the notice.
(4) A notice shall be served upon the person whose property was, by the warrant, issued under section 334, directed to be attached, and, unless the property is to be applied to the payment of a fine, upon the person entitled to the proceeds of the sale of the property; and the notice shall specify the time and place fixed for the appearance of the objector and shall direct the person upon whom the notice is served to appear before the court at the same time and place if he wishes to be heard upon the hearing of the objection.
(5) Upon the date fixed for the hearing of the objection, the court shall investigate the claim, and for that purpose may hear any evidence which the objector may give or adduce and any evidence given or adduced by a person served with a notice in accordance with the provisions of subsection (4).
(6) If, upon investigation of the claim, the court is satisfied that the property was not, when attached, in the possession of the person ordered to pay the money or of some person in trust for him, or in the occupancy of a tenant or other person paying rent to him, or that, being in the possession of the person ordered to pay the money at that time, it was so in his possession not on his own account or as his own property but on account of or in trust for some other person or partly on his own account and partly on account of some other person, the court shall make an order releasing the property, wholly or to such extent as it thinks fit, from attachment.
(7) If, upon the date fixed for his appearance, the objector fails to appear, or if, upon investigation of the claim in accordance with the provisions of subsection (5), the court is of the opinion that the objector has failed to establish his claim, the court shall order the attachment and execution to proceed, and shall make such order as to costs as it deems fit.
(8) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to deprive a person who has failed to comply with the requirements of subsection (1) of the right to take any other proceedings which, apart from the provisions of this section, may lawfully be taken by a person claiming an interest in property attached under a warrant.

Rome Statute

Article 103 Role of States in enforcement of sentences of imprisonment


(a) A sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a State designated by the Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court their willingness to accept sentenced persons.

(b) At the time of declaring its willingness to accept sentenced persons, a State may attach conditions to its acceptance as agreed by the Court and in accordance with this Part.

(c) A State designated in a particular case shall promptly inform the Court whether it accepts the Court's designation.


(a) The State of enforcement shall notify the Court of any circumstances, including the exercise of any conditions agreed under paragraph 1, which could materially affect the terms or extent of the imprisonment. The Court shall be given at least 45 days' notice of any such known or foreseeable circumstances. During this period, the State of enforcement shall take no action that might prejudice its obligations under article 110.

(b) Where the Court cannot agree to the circumstances referred to in subparagraph (a), it shall notify the State of enforcement and proceed in accordance with article 104, paragraph 1.

3. In exercising its discretion to make a designation under paragraph 1, the Court shall take into account the following:

(a) The principle that States Parties should share the responsibility for enforcing sentences of imprisonment, in accordance with principles of equitable distribution, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence;

(b) The application of widely accepted international treaty standards governing the treatment of prisoners;

(c) The views of the sentenced person;

(d) The nationality of the sentenced person;

(e) Such other factors regarding the circumstances of the crime or the person sentenced, or the effective enforcement of the sentence, as may be appropriate in designating the State of enforcement.

4. If no State is designated under paragraph 1, the sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a prison facility made available by the host State, in accordance with the conditions set out in the headquarters agreement referred to in article 3, paragraph 2. In such a case, the costs arising out of the enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be borne by the Court.

Article 104 Change in designation of State of enforcement

1. The Court may, at any time, decide to transfer a sentenced person to a prison of another State.

2. A sentenced person may, at any time, apply to the Court to be transferred from the State of enforcement.

Article 105 Enforcement of the sentence

1. Subject to conditions which a State may have specified in accordance with article 103, paragraph 1 (b), the sentence of imprisonment shall be binding on the States Parties, which shall in no case modify it.

2. The Court alone shall have the right to decide any application for appeal and revision. The State of enforcement shall not impede the making of any such application by a sentenced person.

Article 106 Supervision of enforcement of sentences and conditions of imprisonment

1. The enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be subject to the supervision of the Court and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty standards governing treatment of prisoners.

2. The conditions of imprisonment shall be governed by the law of the State of enforcement and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty standards governing treatment of prisoners; in no case shall such conditions be more or less favourable than those available to prisoners convicted of similar offences in the State of enforcement.

3. Communications between a sentenced person and the Court shall be unimpeded and confidential.

Article 109 Enforcement of fines and forfeiture measures

1. States Parties shall give effect to fines or forfeitures ordered by the Court under Part 7, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties, and in accordance with the procedure of their national law.

2. If a State Party is unable to give effect to an order for forfeiture, it shall take measures to recover the value of the proceeds, property or assets ordered by the Court to be forfeited, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.

3. Property, or the proceeds of the sale of real property or, where appropriate, the sale of other property, which is obtained by a State Party as a result of its enforcement of a judgement of the Court shall be transferred to the Court.