Enforcement of sentences imposed

Republic of Malta

Malta - Criminal Code 1854 (2014) EN

BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title I
OF PUNISHMENTS TO WHICH OFFENCES ARE SUBJECT

8. Imprisonment

(1) Persons sentenced to imprisonment shall be confined in
the prison or in that part of the prison appointed for persons sentenced to that punishment, and they shall be subject to the restrictions prescribed in the prison regulations lawfully made.

(2) The duration of the punishment of imprisonment is established by law in each particular case.


9. Solitary confinement

(1) The punishment of solitary confinement is carried into effect by keeping the person sentenced to imprisonment, during one or more terms in the course of any such punishment, continuously shut up in the appointed place within the prison, without permitting any other person, not employed on duty nor specially authorized by the Minister responsible for the prisons, to have access to him.

(2) No term of solitary confinement shall exceed ten continuous days.

(3) More terms of solitary confinement may only be applied with an interval of two months between one term and another.

(4) Nevertheless, solitary confinement may be applied during those intervals in case of any infringement of the prison regulations, or for any other offence committed during the said intervals, provided that the terms be of short duration and that they shall not together exceed fifteen days in any one interval.

(5) Where the law prescribes the punishment of solitary confinement and does not specify the particular number of terms, it shall not be lawful to inflict more than twelve terms of solitary confinement.

(6) The punishment of solitary confinement is applied in the cases prescribed by law.

(7) Before awarding the punishment of solitary confinement the court shall satisfy itself, if necessary by medical evidence, which may include a medical examination of the person convicted, that the person convicted is fit to undergo the said punishment.

(8) Where, in the course of the execution of the punishment of solitary confinement, the medical officer of the prison certifies in writing that the prisoner is no longer fit to undergo such punishment, the execution of that punishment shall be suspended until such time as the prisoner is again certified to be medically fit to undergo such punishment.


BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title I
OF PUNISHMENTS TO WHICH OFFENCES ARE SUBJECT

11. Fine

(1) Where it is not otherwise specifically provided, the maximum of a fine (multa) is one thousand and one hundred and sixty-four euro and sixty-nine cents (1,164.69) and the minimum is twenty-three euro and twenty-nine cents (23.29).

(2) Where the maximum of a fine (multa) prescribed in this Code or in any other law is less than twenty-three euro and twenty-nine cents (23.29), the maximum shall be twenty-three euro and twenty-nine cents (23.29) and the minimum shall be eleven euro and sixty-five cents (11.65).

(3) In default of payment of a fine (multa) within the period prescribed in article 14, such fine (multa) shall be converted into imprisonment at the rate of one day for every thirty-five euro (35) or part thereof:
Provided that in no case (save as provided in article 17(g) and in article 29(1)) shall imprisonment in substitution of a fine (multa) exceed six months if the fine is not higher than seven thousand euro (7,000), one year if the fine is not higher than thirty thousand euro (30,000), eighteen months if the fine is not higher than eighty thousand euro (80,000) and two years if it is higher than eighty thousand euro (80,000).

BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title I
OF PUNISHMENTS TO WHICH OFFENCES ARE SUBJECT

13. (1) Where it is not otherwise specifically provided, the maximum of a fine (ammenda) is fifty-eight euro and twenty-three cents (58.23) and the minimum is six euro and ninety- nine cents (6.99).

(2) In default of payment of a fine (ammenda) within the period prescribed in article 14, the fine (ammenda) shall be converted into detention at the rate of one day for every eleven euro and sixty-five
cents (11.65) or fraction thereof:
Provided that in no case (save as provided in article 29(1), in article 17(g) and in article 53) shall detention in substitution for a fine (ammenda) exceed one month.


14. (1) A person sentenced to a fine (ammenda or multa) shall pay the same forthwith. Nevertheless the court may, for a reason to be recorded, order that the person sentenced shall pay the fine to the registrar within such period as the court in passing sentence shall direct:
Provided that, in the case of a fine (ammenda) of fifty-eight euro and twenty-three cents (58.23) or less, the said period shall not be more than ten days, and, in the case of a fine (ammenda) of more than fifty-eight euro and twenty-three cents (58.23), or in the case of a fine (multa), the said period shall not be more than one month:
Provided that in default of payment of the fine (multa or ammenda) within the time laid down by the court in its sentence or, failing a time-limit in the sentence, within the time of one week from the date of the sentence, the said fine shall be converted forthwith into imprisonment or detention as provided in articles 11 and 13 as the case may be, and the police shall, by virtue of the authority conferred upon them by the sentence and by this proviso, arrest the person sentenced and shall escort him to the place designated according to law for the confinement of persons sentenced to a fine convertible into imprisonment or detention according to law:
Provided further that the court may, notwithstanding the provisions of articles 11 and 13, in passing sentence of a fine (ammenda or multa) determine any other period of detention or imprisonment which the offender shall undergo in default of payment thereof forthwith or within the prescribed time, as the case may be; but the period of detention or imprisonment so determined shall in no case exceed the period laid down in articles 11 and 13, respectively.

(2) The court may also in its discretion in passing sentence or at any time thereafter direct that any fine (ammenda or multa) to which any person is sentenced, may be paid by instalments in such amounts and in relation to such recurrent intervals as the court may deem fit, but so nevertheless that the period over which the whole amount shall be paid shall in no case exceed three years, and that in default of payment of any one such instalment the whole of the amount outstanding shall become and be immediately due and payable, and all the provisions of this Code applicable to a sentence of fine (ammenda) or of fine (multa) and to arrest and detention or imprisonment, as the case may be, in default of payment thereof, shall apply to the same accordingly.

BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title II
GENERAL PROVISIONS RESPECTING THE INFLICTION AND EXECUTION OF PUNISHMENTS

23. (1) The forfeiture of the corpus delicti, of the instruments used or intended to be used in the commission of any crime, and of anything obtained by such crime, is a consequence of the punishment for the crime as established by law, even though such forfeiture be not expressly stated in the law, unless some person who has not participated in the crime, has a claim to such property.

(2) In case of contraventions, such forfeiture shall only take place in cases in which it is expressly stated in the law.

(3) In the case of things the manufacture, use, carrying, keeping or sale whereof constitutes an offence, the forfeiture thereof may be ordered by the court even though there has not been a conviction and although such things do not belong to the accused.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of subarticles (1) to (3), where the Attorney General communicates to a magistrate a request by a foreign authority for the return of an article obtained by criminal means for purposes of restitution to its rightful owner, the court may after hearing the parties and if it deems it proper so to act after taking into consideration all the circumstances of the case, order that the forfeiture of any such article shall not take place and that the article shall be returned to the requesting foreign authority.

BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title II
GENERAL PROVISIONS RESPECTING THE INFLICTION AND EXECUTION OF PUNISHMENTS

23B. (1) Without prejudice to the provisions of article 23 the court shall, in addition to any punishment to which the person convicted of a relevant offence may be sentenced and in addition to any penalty to which a body corporate may become liable under the provisions of article 121D, order the forfeiture in favour of the Government of the proceeds of the offence or of such property the value of which corresponds to the value of such proceeds whether such proceeds have been received by the person found guilty or by the body corporate referred to in the said article 121D.
(1A) Any property, whether in Malta or outside Malta, of or in the possession or under the control of any person convicted of a relevant offence or in the possession or under the control of a body corporate as may become liable under the provisions of article 121D shall, unless proved to the contrary, be deemed to be derived from the relevant offence and be liable to confiscation or forfeiture by the court.
(1B) The provisions of article 7 of the Act shall mutatis mutandis apply sohowever that any reference in that article to "article 3(3)" shall be construed as a reference to subarticle (1A) of this article and any reference in the said article 7 to "an offence under article 3" shall be construed as a reference to a relevant offence.

(2) Where the proceeds of the offence have been dissipated or for any other reason whatsoever it is not possible to identify and forfeit those proceeds or to order the forteiture of such property the value of which corresponds to the value of those proceeds the court shall sentence the person convicted or the body corporate, or the person convicted and the body corporate in solidum, as the case may be, to the payment of a fine (multa) which is the equivalent of the amount of the proceeds of the offence. The said fine may be recovered as a civil debt and the sentence of the Court shall constitute an executive title for all intents and purposes of the Code of Organization and Civil Procedure.

BOOK FIRST PENAL LAWS

PART I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION, OF THE WILL AND AGE OF
THE OFFENDER, OF ATTEMPTED OFFENCE, OF ACCOMPLICES AND OF RECIDIVISTS

Title I
OF PUNISHMENTS AND GENERAL RULES FOR THEIR APPLICATION

Sub-title II
GENERAL PROVISIONS RESPECTING THE INFLICTION AND EXECUTION OF PUNISHMENTS

23C. (1) Where it is established that the value of the property of the person found guilty of a relevant offence is disproportionate to his lawful income and the court based on specific facts is fully convinced that the property in question has been derived from the criminal activity of that person, that property shall be liable to forfeiture.

(2) When a person has been found guilty of a relevant offence and in consequence thereof any moneys or other movable property or any immovable property is liable to forfeiture, the provisions of
Cap. 101. article 22(3A)(b) and (d) of the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance shall apply mutatis mutandis in the circumstances mentioned in those paragraphs.

23D. (1) Where the court makes any order as is mentioned in articles 23A to 23C, both articles inclusive, it shall order the Registrar to conduct inquiries to trace and ascertain the whereabouts of any moneys or other property, due or pertaining to or under the control of the person charged or accused or convicted, as the case may be:
Provided that for the purposes of this subarticle "property" and "proceeds" shall have the meaning assigned to them respectively by article 23B(3).
(2) Whosoever is required by the Registrar to provide information for the purpose of subarticle (1) shall comply with the demand within thirty days from the day of receipt of the demand by registered post.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title III Of the Attorney General

435D. (1) A confiscation order made by a court outside Malta providing or purporting to provide for the confiscation or forfeiture of any property of or in the possession or under the control of any person convicted of a relevant offence shall be enforceable in Malta in accordance with the provisions of article 24D(2) to (11) of the Ordinance.

(2) For the purposes of this article "confiscation order" includes any judgement, decision, declaration, or other order made by a court whether of criminal or civil jurisdiction providing or purporting to provide for the confiscation or forfeiture of property as is described in subarticle (1).

(3) For the purposes of this article and of articles 435B and 435C:
"the Act" and "the Ordinances" shall have the same meaning assigned to them respectively by article 23A(1);
"relevant offence" means an offence consisting of any act or omission which if committed in these Islands, or in corresponding circumstances, would constitute an offence, other than a crime under the Ordinances or under the Act, liable to the punishment of imprisonment or of detention for a term of more than one year.

Rome Statute

Article 103 Role of States in enforcement of sentences of imprisonment

1.

(a) A sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a State designated by the Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court their willingness to accept sentenced persons.

(b) At the time of declaring its willingness to accept sentenced persons, a State may attach conditions to its acceptance as agreed by the Court and in accordance with this Part.

(c) A State designated in a particular case shall promptly inform the Court whether it accepts the Court's designation.

2.

(a) The State of enforcement shall notify the Court of any circumstances, including the exercise of any conditions agreed under paragraph 1, which could materially affect the terms or extent of the imprisonment. The Court shall be given at least 45 days' notice of any such known or foreseeable circumstances. During this period, the State of enforcement shall take no action that might prejudice its obligations under article 110.

(b) Where the Court cannot agree to the circumstances referred to in subparagraph (a), it shall notify the State of enforcement and proceed in accordance with article 104, paragraph 1.

3. In exercising its discretion to make a designation under paragraph 1, the Court shall take into account the following:

(a) The principle that States Parties should share the responsibility for enforcing sentences of imprisonment, in accordance with principles of equitable distribution, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence;

(b) The application of widely accepted international treaty standards governing the treatment of prisoners;

(c) The views of the sentenced person;

(d) The nationality of the sentenced person;

(e) Such other factors regarding the circumstances of the crime or the person sentenced, or the effective enforcement of the sentence, as may be appropriate in designating the State of enforcement.

4. If no State is designated under paragraph 1, the sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a prison facility made available by the host State, in accordance with the conditions set out in the headquarters agreement referred to in article 3, paragraph 2. In such a case, the costs arising out of the enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be borne by the Court.

Article 104 Change in designation of State of enforcement

1. The Court may, at any time, decide to transfer a sentenced person to a prison of another State.

2. A sentenced person may, at any time, apply to the Court to be transferred from the State of enforcement.

Article 105 Enforcement of the sentence

1. Subject to conditions which a State may have specified in accordance with article 103, paragraph 1 (b), the sentence of imprisonment shall be binding on the States Parties, which shall in no case modify it.

2. The Court alone shall have the right to decide any application for appeal and revision. The State of enforcement shall not impede the making of any such application by a sentenced person.

Article 106 Supervision of enforcement of sentences and conditions of imprisonment

1. The enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be subject to the supervision of the Court and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty standards governing treatment of prisoners.

2. The conditions of imprisonment shall be governed by the law of the State of enforcement and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty standards governing treatment of prisoners; in no case shall such conditions be more or less favourable than those available to prisoners convicted of similar offences in the State of enforcement.

3. Communications between a sentenced person and the Court shall be unimpeded and confidential.

Article 109 Enforcement of fines and forfeiture measures

1. States Parties shall give effect to fines or forfeitures ordered by the Court under Part 7, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties, and in accordance with the procedure of their national law.

2. If a State Party is unable to give effect to an order for forfeiture, it shall take measures to recover the value of the proceeds, property or assets ordered by the Court to be forfeited, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.

3. Property, or the proceeds of the sale of real property or, where appropriate, the sale of other property, which is obtained by a State Party as a result of its enforcement of a judgement of the Court shall be transferred to the Court.