Victims' rights

Republic of Albania

Albania - Criminal Procedure Code 1995 (2017) EN

Article 9/a The right of the victim of the criminal offence
1. During the criminal proceedings the victim shall have the rights provided for by this Code.
2. Public bodies shall guarantee that victims of criminal offences are treated with respect for their human dignity and are protected from being revictimized, in the exercise of the rights provided for by this Code.

Article 58 The rights of the victim of the criminal offence
1. The victim of a criminal offence has the right :
a) to require the prosecution of the perpetrator;
b) to seek medical care, psychological assistance, counselling and other services provided by the authorities, organizations or institutions responsible for assisting the victims of criminal offences.
c) to communicate in his or her own language and to be assisted by a translator and an interpreter of the language of signs or communication facilitator for people who are not able to speak and hear;
ç) to choose a defence lawyer and when it is the case to receive free legal aid pursuant to the legislation into force;
d) to seek at any time information about the status of the proceedings, and to be acquainted about the acts and evidence, without breaching the principle of investigatory secret;
dh) to require to receive the evidence and submit other requests to the proceeding authority;
e) to be informed about the arrest of the accused person and his release under the conditions stipulated in this Code;
ë) to be informed for the non-initiation of the proceeding, the dismissal of the case, the initiation and the completion of the adjudication;
f) to make an appeal in the court against the decision of the prosecutor for the non-initiation of the proceeding and the decision of the prosecutor or of the judge of the preliminary hearing to dismiss the charge or the case;
g) to ask a compensation for the damage and be accepted as a civil plaintiff in the criminal process;
h) to be excluded, in the cases provided for by the law, from the payment of every expense for receiving the acts and judicial fee for the submission of the lawsuit connected with the status of the victim of the criminal offence;
i) to be summoned in the preliminary hearing and in the first hearing;
j) to be heard by the court even when none of the parties requires him to be summoned as a witness;
k) exercise other rights provided for by this Code.
2. The proceeding authority shall immediately notify the victim on the rights referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article and record the notification about it.
3. The victim who does not have legal capacity to act shall exercise rights through his/her legal representative or the legal guardian, unless this is not in the interest of the victim. When incompatibility is noticed between the interests of the victim and the ones of the legal representative or the guardian, the court appoints a special guardian in compliance with the provisions of the Family Code.
4. Heirs of the victim defined by this Code shall have the rights provided in paragraph one, letters: a), e), ë), f), gj) and k) of this article. If the heir of the victim is a child, he shall be represented by the legal guardian.

Article 58/a The rights of the minor victim
1. The minor victim of a criminal offence, besides the rights provided for in Article 58 and other provisions of this Code and the special legislation on the minors, shall have the right to:
a) be accompanied by one person of his/her trust;
b) confidentiality of his/her personal data;
c) ask through the representative that the hearing takes place without the presence of the public.
2. the proceeding authority shall treat the minor victim of the criminal offence taking into account her age, character, and other circumstances, in order to avoid the harmful effects on her future education and development.
3. If there is the possibility that the victim is a minor and the age is unknown, he or she will be presumed to be a minor.
4. The minor victim shall be questioned without delay by people specialized for this purpose. When possible and appropriate, the conversation shall be recorded with audio-visual recording tools, pursuant to the provisions of this Code. This recording may be used as evidence in the criminal proceeding and shall be evaluated along with other evidence pursuant to the criteria provided by article 361/a, paragraph 4 of this Code. When the minor victim is under 14 years of age, the conversation is held in premises adjusted for him.

Article 58/b The rights of the sexually abused victim and human trafficking victim
1. Besides the rights provided for in Article 58 and 58/a of this Code, the sexually abused victim and the human trafficking victim shall also be entitled to:
3. be heard without delay by a judicial police or prosecutor of the same gender;
a) refuse to answer questions regarding his/her private life obviously not related to the criminal offence;
b) request to be heard during the trial through audio-visual tools pursuant to the provisions of this Code.

Article 318 Request of the victim
1. The victim may request from the prosecutor to request the pre-trial admission of evidence.
2. The prosecutor, when not accepting the request, shall take a reasoned decision and notify the victim, who may appeal in the court.
3. may request from the court to proceed with the admission of evidence before the start of the trial.

Article 409 Appeal by the accusing victim
1. The accusing victim may appeal, personally or through his representative, both for criminal or civil effects. He may withdraw the appeal filed by the representative.

Article 411 Appeal by victim, civil plaintiff and civil defendant
1. The accusing victim and the civil plaintiff may appeal against the points of the convicting decision connected with the civil lawsuit and, in case of acquittal, only against the effects of civil liability.
2. The victim and civil plaintiff may appeal against the parts of the decision regarding the liability of the civil defendant for the restitution of the property, the compensation for the damage and procedural expenses.

Rome Statute

Article 68 Protection of the victims and witnesses and their participation in the proceedings

1. The Court shall take appropriate measures to protect the safety, physical and psychological well-being, dignity and privacy of victims and witnesses. In so doing, the Court shall have regard to all relevant factors, including age, gender as defined in article 7, paragraph 3, and health, and the nature of the crime, in particular, but not limited to, where the crime involves sexual or gender violence or violence against children. The Prosecutor shall take such measures particularly during the investigation and prosecution of such crimes. These measures shall not be prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and impartial trial.

2. As an exception to the principle of public hearings provided for in article 67, the Chambers of the Court may, to protect victims and witnesses or an accused, conduct any part of the proceedings in camera or allow the presentation of evidence by electronic or other special means. In particular, such measures shall be implemented in the case of a victim of sexual violence or a child who is a victim or a witness, unless otherwise ordered by the Court, having regard to all the circumstances, particularly the views of the victim or witness.

3. Where the personal interests of the victims are affected, the Court shall permit their views and concerns to be presented and considered at stages of the proceedings determined to be appropriate by the Court and in a manner which is not prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and impartial trial. Such views and concerns may be presented by the legal representatives of the victims where the Court considers it appropriate, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.

4. The Victims and Witnesses Unit may advise the Prosecutor and the Court on appropriate protective measures, security arrangements, counselling and assistance as referred to in article 43, paragraph 6.

5. Where the disclosure of evidence or information pursuant to this Statute may lead to the grave endangerment of the security of a witness or his or her family, the Prosecutor may, for the purposes of any proceedings conducted prior to the commencement of the trial, withhold such evidence or information and instead submit a summary thereof. Such measures shall be exercised in a manner which is not prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and impartial trial.

6. A State may make an application for necessary measures to be taken in respect of the protection of its servants or agents and the protection of confidential or sensitive information.

Article 75 Reparations to victims

1. The Court shall establish principles relating to reparations to, or in respect of, victims, including restitution, compensation and rehabilitation. On this basis, in its decision the Court may, either upon request or on its own motion in exceptional circumstances, determine the scope and extent of any damage, loss and injury to, or in respect of, victims and will state the principles on which it is acting.

2. The Court may make an order directly against a convicted person specifying appropriate reparations to, or in respect of, victims, including restitution, compensation and rehabilitation. Where appropriate, the Court may order that the award for reparations be made through the Trust Fund provided for in article 79.

3. Before making an order under this article, the Court may invite and shall take account of representations from or on behalf of the convicted person, victims, other interested persons or interested States.

4. In exercising its power under this article, the Court may, after a person is convicted of a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court, determine whether, in order to give effect to an order which it may make under this article, it is necessary to seek measures under article 93, paragraph 1.

5. A State Party shall give effect to a decision under this article as if the provisions of article 109 were applicable to this article.

6. Nothing in this article shall be interpreted as prejudicing the rights of victims under national or international law.

Article 82 Appeal against other decisions

4. A legal representative of the victims, the convicted person or a bona fide owner of property adversely affected by an order under article 75 may appeal against the order for reparations, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.

Article 93 Other forms of cooperation

1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:

(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;

(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;

(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;

(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;

(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;

(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;

(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;

(h) The execution of searches and seizures;

(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;

(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;

(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and

(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.

2. The Court shall have the authority to provide an assurance to a witness or an expert appearing before the Court that he or she will not be prosecuted, detained or subjected to any restriction of personal freedom by the Court in respect of any act or omission that preceded the departure of that person from the requested State.

3. Where execution of a particular measure of assistance detailed in a request presented under paragraph 1, is prohibited in the requested State on the basis of an existing fundamental legal principle of general application, the requested State shall promptly consult with the Court to try to resolve the matter. In the consultations, consideration should be given to whether the assistance can be rendered in another manner or subject to conditions. If after consultations the matter cannot be resolved, the Court shall modify the request as necessary.

4. In accordance with article 72, a State Party may deny a request for assistance, in whole or in part, only if the request concerns the production of any documents or disclosure of evidence which relates to its national security.

5. Before denying a request for assistance under paragraph 1 (l), the requested State shall consider whether the assistance can be provided subject to specified conditions, or whether the assistance can be provided at a later date or in an alternative manner, provided that if the Court or the Prosecutor accepts the assistance subject to conditions, the Court or the Prosecutor shall abide by them.

6. If a request for assistance is denied, the requested State Party shall promptly inform the Court or the Prosecutor of the reasons for such denial.


(a) The Court may request the temporary transfer of a person in custody for purposes of identification or for obtaining testimony or other assistance. The person may be transferred if the following conditions are fulfilled:

(i) The person freely gives his or her informed consent to the transfer; and

(ii) The requested State agrees to the transfer, subject to such conditions as that State and the Court may agree.

(b) The person being transferred shall remain in custody. When the purposes of the transfer have been fulfilled, the Court shall return the person without delay to the requested State.


(a) The Court shall ensure the confidentiality of documents and information, except as required for the investigation and proceedings described in the request.

(b) The requested State may, when necessary, transmit documents or information to the Prosecutor on a confidential basis. The Prosecutor may then use them solely for the purpose of generating new evidence.

(c) The requested State may, on its own motion or at the request of the Prosecutor, subsequently consent to the disclosure of such documents or information. They may then be used as evidence pursuant to the provisions of Parts 5 and 6 and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.



(i) In the event that a State Party receives competing requests, other than for surrender or extradition, from the Court and from another State pursuant to an international obligation, the State Party shall endeavour, in consultation with the Court and the other State, to meet both requests, if necessary by postponing or attaching conditions to one or the other request.

(ii) Failing that, competing requests shall be resolved in accordance with the principles established in article 90.

(b) Where, however, the request from the Court concerns information, property or persons which are subject to the control of a third State or an international organization by virtue of an international agreement, the requested States shall so inform the Court and the Court shall direct its request to the third State or international organization.


(a) The Court may, upon request, cooperate with and provide assistance to a State Party conducting an investigation into or trial in respect of conduct which constitutes a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court or which constitutes a serious crime under the national law of the requesting State.


(i) The assistance provided under subparagraph (a) shall include, inter alia:

a. The transmission of statements, documents or other types of evidence obtained in the course of an investigation or a trial conducted by the Court; and

b. The questioning of any person detained by order of the Court;

(ii) In the case of assistance under subparagraph (b) (i) a:

a. If the documents or other types of evidence have been obtained with the assistance of a State, such transmission shall require the consent of that State;

b. If the statements, documents or other types of evidence have been provided by a witness or expert, such transmission shall be subject to the provisions of article 68.

(c) The Court may, under the conditions set out in this paragraph, grant a request for assistance under this paragraph from a State which is not a Party to this Statute.


ARTICLE 20 Victims

1. Victims participating in the proceedings in accordance with rules 89 to 91 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence shall enjoy the following privileges, immunities and facilities to the extent necessary for their appearance before the Court, including the time spent on journeys in connection with their appearance before the Court, subject to the production of the document referred to in paragraph 2 of this article:

(a) Immunity from personal arrest or detention;

(b) Immunity from seizure of their personal baggage unless there are serious grounds for believing that the baggage contains articles the import or export of which is prohibited by law or controlled by the quarantine regulations of the State Party concerned;

(c) Immunity from legal process of every kind in respect of words spoken or written and all acts performed by them in the course of their appearance before the Court, which immunity shall continue to be accorded even after their appearance before the Court;

(d) Exemption from immigration restrictions or alien registration when they travel to and from the Court for purposes of their appearance.

2. Victims participating in the proceedings in accordance with rules 89 to 91 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence who enjoy the privileges, immunities and facilities referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall be provided by the Court with a document certifying their participation in the proceedings of the Court and specifying a time period for that participation.