Part Five. International Cooperation in the Sphere of Criminal Court Proceedings
Section XVIII. Procedure for the Interaction of Courts, Prosecutors, Investigators and the Inquest Bodies with the Corresponding Competent Bodies and Officials of Foreign States and with International Organizations
Chapter 53. Principal Provisions on the Procedure for the Interaction of the Courts, Prosecutors, Investigators and the Inquest Bodies with the Corresponding Competent Bodies and Officials of Foreign States and with International Organizations
Article 457. Execution of an Inquiry on Legal Assistance in the Russian Federation
Federal Law No. 58-FZ of June 29, 2004 amended part 1 of Article 457 of this Code
1. The court, the public prosecutor or the investigator shall execute inquiries on the performance of the procedural actions, handed over to them in the established order, which have come in from the corresponding competent bodies of the foreign states in conformity with the international treaties of the Russian Federation and the international agreements, or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity. The principle of reciprocity shall be confirmed by a written statement of the foreign state on rendering legal assistance to the Russian Federation in the performance of the individual procedural actions, received by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, by the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, by the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, by the Federal Service for Control over the Traffic of Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances of the Russian Federation, or by the Office of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation.
2. In the execution of the inquiry shall be applied the norms of the present Code, but the procedural norms of the legislation of the foreign state may also be applied in conformity with the international treaties of the Russian Federation, with the international agreements or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity, unless this contradicts the legislation and the international liabilities of the Russian Federation.
3. In the execution of the inquiry may be attending the representatives of the foreign state, if this is stipulated by the international treaties of the Russian Federation or by a written liability on an interaction, based on the principle of reciprocity.
4. If the inquiry cannot be executed, the received documents shall be returned with an indication of the reasons which have prevented it from being executed, through the body that has received it or along diplomatic channels, to that competent body of the foreign state, from which the inquiry was directed. The inquiry shall be returned without execution, if it contradicts the legislation of the Russian Federation, or if its execution may inflict damage upon its sovereignty or security .
Article 458. Directing the Criminal Case Materials for Conducting the Criminal Prosecution
If the crime is perpetrated on the territory of the Russian Federation by a foreign citizen who has subsequently gone outside its boundaries so that it is impossible to perform procedural actions with his participation on the territory of the Russian Federation, all the materials on the instituted and the inquisited criminal case shall be handed over to the Office of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation, and the latter shall resolve the question of their dispatch to the competent bodies of the foreign state for carrying out the criminal prosecution.
Article 459. Execution of the Inquiries on Carrying Out the Criminal Prosecution or on Instituting a Criminal Case on the Territory of the Russian Federation
1. An inquiry from the competent body of a foreign state on carrying out the criminal prosecution with respect to a citizen of the Russian Federation, who has perpetrated a crime on the territory of the foreign state and has returned to the Russian Federation, shall be considered by the Office of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation. A preliminary inquisition and the judicial proceedings shall be conducted in such cases in accordance with the procedure, established by the present Code.
2. If a crime is committed on the territory of a foreign state by a person, who is a citizen of Russia and who has come back to the Russian Federation before the criminal prosecution was instituted on his account at the place of the perpetration of the crime, the criminal case may be instituted and investigated by the materials, supplied by the corresponding competent body of the foreign state to the Office of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation in conformity with the present Code, if there exist the grounds, stipulated by Article 12 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation .
1. The Court may transmit a request for the arrest and surrender of a person, together with the material supporting the request outlined in article 91, to any State on the territory of which that person may be found and shall request the cooperation of that State in the arrest and surrender of such a person. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and the procedure under their national law, comply with requests for arrest and surrender.
1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:
(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;
(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;
(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;
(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;
(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;
(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;
(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;
(h) The execution of searches and seizures;
(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;
(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;
(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and
(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.
2. The Court shall have the authority to provide an assurance to a witness or an expert appearing before the Court that he or she will not be prosecuted, detained or subjected to any restriction of personal freedom by the Court in respect of any act or omission that preceded the departure of that person from the requested State.
3. Where execution of a particular measure of assistance detailed in a request presented under paragraph 1, is prohibited in the requested State on the basis of an existing fundamental legal principle of general application, the requested State shall promptly consult with the Court to try to resolve the matter. In the consultations, consideration should be given to whether the assistance can be rendered in another manner or subject to conditions. If after consultations the matter cannot be resolved, the Court shall modify the request as necessary.
4. In accordance with article 72, a State Party may deny a request for assistance, in whole or in part, only if the request concerns the production of any documents or disclosure of evidence which relates to its national security.
5. Before denying a request for assistance under paragraph 1 (l), the requested State shall consider whether the assistance can be provided subject to specified conditions, or whether the assistance can be provided at a later date or in an alternative manner, provided that if the Court or the Prosecutor accepts the assistance subject to conditions, the Court or the Prosecutor shall abide by them.
6. If a request for assistance is denied, the requested State Party shall promptly inform the Court or the Prosecutor of the reasons for such denial.
(a) The Court may request the temporary transfer of a person in custody for purposes of identification or for obtaining testimony or other assistance. The person may be transferred if the following conditions are fulfilled:
(i) The person freely gives his or her informed consent to the transfer; and
(ii) The requested State agrees to the transfer, subject to such conditions as that State and the Court may agree.
(b) The person being transferred shall remain in custody. When the purposes of the transfer have been fulfilled, the Court shall return the person without delay to the requested State.
(a) The Court shall ensure the confidentiality of documents and information, except as required for the investigation and proceedings described in the request.
(b) The requested State may, when necessary, transmit documents or information to the Prosecutor on a confidential basis. The Prosecutor may then use them solely for the purpose of generating new evidence.
(c) The requested State may, on its own motion or at the request of the Prosecutor, subsequently consent to the disclosure of such documents or information. They may then be used as evidence pursuant to the provisions of Parts 5 and 6 and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
(i) In the event that a State Party receives competing requests, other than for surrender or extradition, from the Court and from another State pursuant to an international obligation, the State Party shall endeavour, in consultation with the Court and the other State, to meet both requests, if necessary by postponing or attaching conditions to one or the other request.
(ii) Failing that, competing requests shall be resolved in accordance with the principles established in article 90.
(b) Where, however, the request from the Court concerns information, property or persons which are subject to the control of a third State or an international organization by virtue of an international agreement, the requested States shall so inform the Court and the Court shall direct its request to the third State or international organization.
(a) The Court may, upon request, cooperate with and provide assistance to a State Party conducting an investigation into or trial in respect of conduct which constitutes a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court or which constitutes a serious crime under the national law of the requesting State.
(i) The assistance provided under subparagraph (a) shall include, inter alia:
a. The transmission of statements, documents or other types of evidence obtained in the course of an investigation or a trial conducted by the Court; and
b. The questioning of any person detained by order of the Court;
(ii) In the case of assistance under subparagraph (b) (i) a:
a. If the documents or other types of evidence have been obtained with the assistance of a State, such transmission shall require the consent of that State;
b. If the statements, documents or other types of evidence have been provided by a witness or expert, such transmission shall be subject to the provisions of article 68.
(c) The Court may, under the conditions set out in this paragraph, grant a request for assistance under this paragraph from a State which is not a Party to this Statute.