Other forms of cooperation

Republic of Malta

Malta - Criminal Code 1854 (2014) EN

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title III POWERS OF ENTRY, SEARCH AND SEIZURE UNDER WARRANT

355E. (1) Saving the cases where the law provides otherwise, no police officer shall, without a warrant from a Magistrate, enter any premises, house, building or enclosure for the purpose of effecting any search therein or arresting any person who has committed or is reasonably suspected of having committed or of being about to commit any offence unless -

(a) the offence is a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act and there is imminent danger that the said person may escape or that the corpus delicti or the means of proving the offence will be suppressed; or

(b) the person is detected in the very act of committing a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act; or

(c) the intervention of the Police is necessary in order to prevent the commission of a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act; or

(d) the entry is necessary for the execution of any warrant or order issued by any other competent authority in the cases prescribed by law; or

(e) the arrest is for the purpose of apprehending a person who is unlawfully at large after escaping from lawful arrest or detention; or

(f) the entry is necessary for purposes of:
(i) executing the arrest, or ascertaining the whereabouts, of a person in respect of whom an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System and there is an imminent danger that the said person may escape; or
(ii) discovering any property in respect of which an alert has been entered in the Schengen
Information System and there is an imminent danger that the property may be concealed, lost, damaged, altered or destroyed.

(2) The expression "enclosure" does not include any plot of land enclosed by rubble walls.

(3) A warrant may also be issued by a Magistrate as mentioned in subarticle (1) for the purpose of:
(a) effecting the arrest or ascertaining the whereabouts of a person in respect of whom an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System; or
(b) discovering and seizing any property in respect of which an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System.


355F. In cases where a police officer is empowered to enter into any of the places mentioned in the last preceding article, it shall be lawful for such officer to open or break any door or window, if, after giving notice of his office and object, he cannot otherwise obtain entry.


355G. (1) Any entry and search warrant issued under this Sub¬title and any search or seizure made under the provisions of this Sub-title shall not extend to legal privilege or to any excluded material.

(2) An entry and search warrant issued under this Sub-title shall be deemed to have been granted to the police officer or officers executing it.

(3) Without prejudice to the right of obtaining a new warrant for the same purpose, an entry and search warrant may not be executed after the lapse of one month from the date of issue.


355H. No warrant of entry and search may be executed after sunset unless the Magistrate has otherwise authorised in the warrant, or unless the executing Police officer has reasonable cause to believe that the purpose of the entry and search will be frustrated if the execution of the warrant is delayed.


355I. The executing officer shall hand over a copy of the warrant to the person occupying and present at the place searched or to any other person who appears to the said officer to be in charge of the same place and who happens to be present during the search. If there is no person present who appears to the executing officer to be in charge of the premises the copy of the warrant shall be left in an easily visible place on the premises.


355J. A search under a warrant may only be a search to the extent required for the purpose for which the warrant was issued:
Provided that if, in the course of the search, offences other than the offence or offences mentioned in the warrant are discovered, the search may extend to the extent required for the purposes of such other offences.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title V
SEIZURE AND RETENTION

355P. The Police, when lawfully on any premises, may seize anything which is on the premises if they have reasonable grounds for believing that it has been obtained in consequence of the commission of an offence or that it is evidence in relation to an offence or it is the subject of an alert in the Schengen Information System and that it is necessary to seize it to prevent it being concealed, lost, damaged, altered or destroyed.


355Q. The Police may, in addition to the power of seizing a computer machine, require any information which is contained in a computer to be delivered in a form in which it can be taken away and in which it is visible and legible.


355R. The Police shall always issue to the person on the premises or in control of the thing seized a receipt for anything seized and on request by any such person, the Police shall, against payment and within a reasonable time, supply to him photographs, or a film, video recording or electronic image or copies of the thing seized, unless the investigating officer has reasonable grounds for believing that this would be prejudicial to the investigation or to any criminal proceedings that may be instituted as a result thereof.


355S. (1) Anything which has been lawfully seized by the Police may be retained so long as is necessary in all the circumstances.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the aforesaid, anything lawfully seized by the Police under this Code may be retained for use as evidence at the trial or for forensic examination or any other aspect of the investigation, or in order to establish the thing’s lawful owner.

(3) The Commissioner shall provide for the proper custody of anything seized.


355T. A person who is the rightful owner of a thing seized and retained may, unless criminal proceedings in the course of which the thing seized has been exhibited or is to be exhibited are pending before any court, make an application to a Magistrate for its restitution, and the Magistrate may, after hearing the Police, by a decree order its release either unconditionally, or under such conditions as may be necessary to preserve the evidential aspects of the thing.


355U. Unless a thing is liable to forfeiture, nothing shall be retained if a photograph, film, video recording or electronic image or a copy of the thing would be sufficient:
Provided that before releasing the thing the Police may, where they deem so necessary, apply to a Magistrate for a repertus to be drawn up and the provisions of Title II of Part II of Book Second of this Code shall apply.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title X
TAKING OF SAMPLES, FINGERPRINTING AND OTHER INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

355AV. The investigating officer may in person, by application or by facsimile, request a Magistrate to authorise the necessary procedure -
(a) where he has reasonable grounds to require the taking of intimate samples from the person arrested; or
(b) to take photographs, a film, video recording or electronic image of intimate parts of the body of the person arrested; or
(c) where the person arrested withholds his consent for any procedure which the investigating officer may carry out according to law with the consent of the person arrested:
Provided that where the request falls under paragraph (a), the provisions of article 355AW shall apply and, if the request falls under paragraph (b), the provisions of article 355AP shall mutatis mutandis apply.


355AW. Subject to the provisions of articles 355AV and 355AX, an intimate sample may be taken from a person arrested only if his appropriate consent is given.


355AX. (1) Upon a request under article 355AV(a), the Magistrate shall obtain all such information from the investigating officer to enable him to decide on whether the request is justified or not.

(2) Where the Magistrate decides that the request is justified he shall visit the person arrested to request his consent and before asking for his consent he shall explain to him:
(a) the nature of the request and the reasons thereof;
(b) the consequences of giving his consent and of refusing consent as provided in article 355AZ; and
(c) that he is entitled to consult a lawyer or legal procurator before deciding whether or not to give his consent.

(3) Where the person arrested requests to consult a lawyer or legal procurator under subarticle (2) the magistrate shall make a record of the fact, date and time of the request and, subject to the provisions of subarticle (4) shall allow the person arrested to consult with a lawyer or legal procurator for such time as the magistrate may deem appropriate in the circumstances of the case.

(4) The magistrate may, on a justified objection by the Police, delay any communication with an advocate or legal procurator if the interests of justice so require or when any of the events mentioned in article 355AT(5) is likely to occur if such communication is allowed immediately:
Provided that where the person arrested has requested to consult a lawyer or legal procurator his consent can only be requested after such consultation has taken place.


355AY. Where an intimate sample is to be taken under these articles the provisions of article 355AP shall apply.


355AZ. Where the appropriate consent to the taking of an intimate sample from a person was refused without a good cause, in any proceedings against the person for an offence, those who have to judge of the facts may draw such inferences from the refusal as appear proper and the refusal may, on the basis of such inferences, be treated as, or as capable of amounting to corroboration of any evidence against the person in relation to which the refusal is material.


355BA. (1) The investigating officer may, with the appropriate consent in writing of the person arrested, cause to be taken:
(a) fingerprints, palm-prints from the person arrested;
(b) photographs of the person arrested or of non-intimate parts of his body;
(c) non-intimate samples from the person arrested.

(2) The person arrested may request in writing that:
(a) his fingerprints, palm-prints or other prints,
(b) photographs of his person or of non-intimate parts of his body,
(c) non-intimate samples from his person,
be taken and any such request shall be complied with by the investigating officer with the assistance of any competent person as may be necessary.

(3) The person arrested may also request in writing the investigating officer to carry out any of the procedures mentioned in article 355AV(a) and (b), and any such request shall be referred without delay to a Magistrate. The Magistrate shall authorise the procedure requested after verifying the request made by the person arrested and the provisions of article 355AP shall apply where appropriate.


355BB. Samples from a person other than a person arrested may only be taken with that person’s prior consent in writing:
Provided that for the taking of an intimate sample a Magistrate’s authorisation must also be obtained upon application.


355BC. The provisions of article 355BA shall mutatis mutandis apply to any person, not being an arrested person, who makes a request for the carrying out in his respect of any procedure referred to in that article provided the request is made in writing and contains a declaration that the person making the request has reason to believe that there is the likelihood that the failure to carry out the
requested procedure is likely to result in his being arrested or detained.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title III Of the Attorney General

435AB. (1) Pursuant to and in accordance with any treaty, convention, agreement or understanding to which Malta is a party or which is otherwise applicable to Malta, the Attorney General may, with the concurrence of the Minister responsible for Justice, give his consent to the temporary surrender of a person in custody for the purpose of an investigation to be carried out or being carried out by a judicial, prosecuting or administrative authority of any place outside Malta at the request of a judicial, prosecuting or administering authority in Malta.

(2) The person surrendered shall be kept in custody in the place outside Malta to which he has been surrendered.

(3) Any time spent in custody in the place outside Malta shall be deemed to be time spent in custody in Malta.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title III Of the Attorney General

435BC. (1) Pursuant to and in accordance with any treaty, convention, agreement or understanding to which Malta is a party or which is otherwise applicable to Malta, the Attorney General may, with the concurrence of the Minister responsible for Justice, give his consent to the temporary surrender of a person in custody in Malta for the purpose of an investigation to be carried out or being carried out by a judicial, prosecuting or administrative authority of any place outside Malta at the request of the said authority.

(2) The person surrendered shall be kept in custody in the place outside Malta to which he has been surrendered.

(3) Any time spent in custody in the place outside Malta shall be deemed to be time spent in custody in Malta.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title III Of the Attorney General

435C. (1) Where the Attorney General receives a request made by a judicial, prosecuting or administrative authority of any place outside Malta or by an international court for the temporary seizure of all or any or the moneys or property, movable or immovable, of a person (hereinafter in this article referred to as "the accused") charged or accused in proceedings before the courts of that place or before the international court of a relevant offence, the Attorney General may apply to the Criminal Court for an order (hereinafter in this title referred to as a "freezing order") having the same effect as an order as is referred to in article 22A(1) of the Ordinance, and the provision of the said article 22A shall, subject to the provisions of subarticle (2), apply mutandis mutandis to that order.

(2) The provisions of article 24C(2) to (5) of the Ordinance shall apply to an order made under this article as if it were an order made under the said article 24C.

(3) Article 22B of the Ordinance shall also apply to any person who acts in contravention of a freezing order under this article.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title III Of the Attorney General

435E. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law it shall be lawful for the Attorney General to authorise the Executive Police and, where appropriate, the Customs authorities to allow a controlled delivery to take place with a view to identifying persons involved in the commission of any criminal offence under the laws of Malta or under the laws of another country.
For the purposes of this subarticle a "controlled delivery" shall mutatis mutandis have the same meaning assigned to it by article 30B(2) of the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance sohowever that the illicit or suspect consignment referred to in that subarticle may for the purposes of this subarticle consist of anything whatsoever and that the consignment may be intercepted and allowed to continue with the original contents intact or removed or replaced in whole or in part.

(2) With the same objective of identifying persons involved in the commissions of a criminal offence under the laws of Malta or under the laws of another country, it shall also be lawful for the Attorney General to authorise the Executive Police or a person under the supervision or direction of the Executive Police, to acquire or procure an illicit or suspect consignment of anything from any person or place.

Rome Statute

Article 93 Other forms of cooperation

1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:

(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;

(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;

(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;

(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;

(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;

(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;

(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;

(h) The execution of searches and seizures;

(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;

(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;

(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and

(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.

2. The Court shall have the authority to provide an assurance to a witness or an expert appearing before the Court that he or she will not be prosecuted, detained or subjected to any restriction of personal freedom by the Court in respect of any act or omission that preceded the departure of that person from the requested State.

3. Where execution of a particular measure of assistance detailed in a request presented under paragraph 1, is prohibited in the requested State on the basis of an existing fundamental legal principle of general application, the requested State shall promptly consult with the Court to try to resolve the matter. In the consultations, consideration should be given to whether the assistance can be rendered in another manner or subject to conditions. If after consultations the matter cannot be resolved, the Court shall modify the request as necessary.

4. In accordance with article 72, a State Party may deny a request for assistance, in whole or in part, only if the request concerns the production of any documents or disclosure of evidence which relates to its national security.

5. Before denying a request for assistance under paragraph 1 (l), the requested State shall consider whether the assistance can be provided subject to specified conditions, or whether the assistance can be provided at a later date or in an alternative manner, provided that if the Court or the Prosecutor accepts the assistance subject to conditions, the Court or the Prosecutor shall abide by them.

6. If a request for assistance is denied, the requested State Party shall promptly inform the Court or the Prosecutor of the reasons for such denial.

7.

(a) The Court may request the temporary transfer of a person in custody for purposes of identification or for obtaining testimony or other assistance. The person may be transferred if the following conditions are fulfilled:

(i) The person freely gives his or her informed consent to the transfer; and

(ii) The requested State agrees to the transfer, subject to such conditions as that State and the Court may agree.

(b) The person being transferred shall remain in custody. When the purposes of the transfer have been fulfilled, the Court shall return the person without delay to the requested State.

8.

(a) The Court shall ensure the confidentiality of documents and information, except as required for the investigation and proceedings described in the request.

(b) The requested State may, when necessary, transmit documents or information to the Prosecutor on a confidential basis. The Prosecutor may then use them solely for the purpose of generating new evidence.

(c) The requested State may, on its own motion or at the request of the Prosecutor, subsequently consent to the disclosure of such documents or information. They may then be used as evidence pursuant to the provisions of Parts 5 and 6 and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.

9.

(a)

(i) In the event that a State Party receives competing requests, other than for surrender or extradition, from the Court and from another State pursuant to an international obligation, the State Party shall endeavour, in consultation with the Court and the other State, to meet both requests, if necessary by postponing or attaching conditions to one or the other request.

(ii) Failing that, competing requests shall be resolved in accordance with the principles established in article 90.

(b) Where, however, the request from the Court concerns information, property or persons which are subject to the control of a third State or an international organization by virtue of an international agreement, the requested States shall so inform the Court and the Court shall direct its request to the third State or international organization.

10.

(a) The Court may, upon request, cooperate with and provide assistance to a State Party conducting an investigation into or trial in respect of conduct which constitutes a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court or which constitutes a serious crime under the national law of the requesting State.

(b)

(i) The assistance provided under subparagraph (a) shall include, inter alia:

a. The transmission of statements, documents or other types of evidence obtained in the course of an investigation or a trial conducted by the Court; and

b. The questioning of any person detained by order of the Court;

(ii) In the case of assistance under subparagraph (b) (i) a:

a. If the documents or other types of evidence have been obtained with the assistance of a State, such transmission shall require the consent of that State;

b. If the statements, documents or other types of evidence have been provided by a witness or expert, such transmission shall be subject to the provisions of article 68.

(c) The Court may, under the conditions set out in this paragraph, grant a request for assistance under this paragraph from a State which is not a Party to this Statute.

Article 96 Contents of request for other forms of assistance under article 93

1. A request for other forms of assistance referred to in article 93 shall be made in writing. In urgent cases, a request may be made by any medium capable of delivering a written record, provided that the request shall be confirmed through the channel provided for in article 87, paragraph 1 (a).

2. The request shall, as applicable, contain or be supported by the following:

(a) A concise statement of the purpose of the request and the assistance sought, including the legal basis and the grounds for the request;

(b) As much detailed information as possible about the location or identification of any person or place that must be found or identified in order for the assistance sought to be provided;

(c) A concise statement of the essential facts underlying the request;

(d) The reasons for and details of any procedure or requirement to be followed;

(e) Such information as may be required under the law of the requested State in order to execute the request; and

(f) Any other information relevant in order for the assistance sought to be provided.

3. Upon the request of the Court, a State Party shall consult with the Court, either generally or with respect to a specific matter, regarding any requirements under its national law that may apply under paragraph 2 (e). During the consultations, the State Party shall advise the Court of the specific requirements of its national law.

4. The provisions of this article shall, where applicable, also apply in respect of a request for assistance made to the Court.