Enforcement of sentences of imprisonment


Criminal Code of the Republic of Montenegro



1. Purpose of Punishment, Types of Punishment and Requirements for their Imposition

Forty-year Prison Term
Article 35

(1) A forty-year prison term may be prescribed for the most serious criminal offences provided that it is not prescribed as the only punishment for a specific criminal offence.

(2) A forty-year prison term may not be imposed on the following :
1) a person who at the time of commission of a criminal offence is not 21 ;
2) a person who at the time of commission of a criminal offence is of significantly reduced mental capacity (Art.14, para. 2) ;
3) a person who attempted to commit a criminal offence.

Prison Term

Article 36
(1) A prison term may not be shorter than thirty days or longer than twenty years.

(2) The prison term referred to in para. 1 hereof shall be imposed in full years and months, and terms up to six months shall be imposed also in days.


Article 37
(1) A prisoner who has served two thirds or, exceptionally, has served a half of his prison term or his forty year prison term may be released on parole provided that during his prison term he has improved his behaviour to an extent that it can be reasonably expected that his behaviour outside of prison will be good and, in particular, that he will not reoffend during his service of the remainder of the punishment. In deciding whether a prisoner meets the requirements for parole , due consideration shall be given to his conduct during the service in prison, his fulfillment of work obligations, which is assessed with respect to his capacity, as well as to other circumstances that indicate that the purpose of the punishment has been achieved.

(2) The decision granting a prisoner parole may order that he fulfills an obligation set by law.

(3) In the case referred to in para. 1 hereof, the prisoner shall be considered to have served his punishment provided that the parole is not revoked.

Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Montenegro

Part One

Chapter VIII


Respect of personality and dignity of detainees and their Accommodation

Article 181
(1) Personality and dignity of the detainee shall not be offended in the course of detention.

(2) The only restrictions that may be imposed against detainees shall be only the ones needed to prevent their flight, instigation of third persons to destroy, conceal, alter and fabricate evidence or traces of a criminal offence or to prevent direct or indirect contacts of detainees for the purpose of influencing witnesses, accomplices and accessories by virtue of concealment.

(3) Persons of different sexes shall not be detained in the same room. As a rule, detainees against whom reasonable suspicion exists that they have participated in the same criminal offence shall not be accommodated in the same room, neither shall detainees be accommodated in the same room as persons who are serving a prison sentence. If possible, detainees against whom a reasonable suspicion exists that they are recidivist shall not be accommodated in the same room with other detainees on whom they might have an adverse influence.

Rights of detainees

Article 182
(1) Detainees shall be entitled to at least eight hours of an uninterrupted night rest for every 24-hour period.

(2) At least two hours of movement in the open air within prison grounds daily shall be provided to detainees.

(3) Detainees shall be entitled to wear their own clothes, to use their own bedding or to obtain and use at their own expense food, books, professional periodicals, newspapers, stationary and drawing supplies and other things related to their daily needs, except those suitable for infliction of injures, impairment of health or preparation of flight.

(4) During the investigation, the investigating judge may, by virtue of office or upon the motion of the State Prosecutor issue a ruling temporarily suspending or limiting the detainee's right to procure and use newspapers if this could be detrimental to the conduct of proceedings. An appeal against the ruling of the investigative judge shall be allowed to the Panel referred to in Article 24, paragraph 7 of the present Code.

(5) Detainees may be obliged to maintain in clean condition the premises they are detained in. If required so by the detainees, the investigating judge or the Chair of the Panel with the consent of prison administration may allow the detainees to work within prison grounds in accordance with their mental and physical capacity, providing that this is not detrimental for the course of the procedure. For such a work the detainee is entitled to a fee ordered by the administrator of the prison.

Part Two


Chapter XXIII


Detention after announcement of the Judgment

Article 376
(1) When the Court imposes a punishment of imprisonment for a term of less than five years, the Panel shall order detention to the defendant who is at liberty if the reasons referred to in Article 175, Paragraph 1, Items 1 and 3 of the present Code exist, and it shall do the same for the defendant who was imposed an imprisonment sentence of five years or a more serious one by a first instance court if grounds exist referred to in Article 175, paragraph 1, item 4. The Panel shall vacate detention of the defendant who is in detention if the reasons for which detention was ordered do not exist any longer.

(2) The Panel shall always vacate detention and order that the defendant be released if s/he is acquitted, or the charge is rejected, or if s/he is pronounced guilty but released from punishment or if s/he is sentenced only to a fine, or community service or judicial admonition or suspended sentence is imposed or s/he has already served a sentence due to inclusion of the detention or other deprivation of liberty or the charge has been dismissed (Article 367), save in the case of lack of the subject-matter jurisdiction.

(3) After the announcement of a judgment and until it becomes final, the detention shall be ordered or vacated pursuant to the provision of paragraph 1 of this Article. The decision thereon shall be made by the Panel of the first instance Court (Article 24, Paragraph 7).

(4) In the cases referred to in Paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, before rendering a ruling by which a detention is ordered or vacated, the opinion of the State Prosecutor shall be obtained if the proceedings are conducted upon his/her request.

(5) If the defendant is already in detention and the Panel establishes that the grounds for which detention was ordered still exist, or that the grounds referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article exist, it shall render a separate ruling on extension of detention. The Panel shall render the separate ruling when it is necessary to order or vacate detention, as well. An appeal against the ruling does not stay its execution, and the Court shall decide on the appeal within a term of three days.

(6) Detention ordered or extended pursuant to the paragraphs 1 to 5 of this Article may last until a judgment becomes final, but at the longest until the term of the sentence imposed by the judgment at first instance expires.

(7) Upon the request of the defendant, who is in detention after being sentenced to imprisonment, the Chair of the Panel may render a ruling on his/her transfer to the penitentiary institution even before the judgment becomes final.

Rome Statute

Article 103 Role of States in enforcement of sentences of imprisonment


(a) A sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a State designated by the Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court their willingness to accept sentenced persons.

(b) At the time of declaring its willingness to accept sentenced persons, a State may attach conditions to its acceptance as agreed by the Court and in accordance with this Part.

(c) A State designated in a particular case shall promptly inform the Court whether it accepts the Court's designation.


(a) The State of enforcement shall notify the Court of any circumstances, including the exercise of any conditions agreed under paragraph 1, which could materially affect the terms or extent of the imprisonment. The Court shall be given at least 45 days' notice of any such known or foreseeable circumstances. During this period, the State of enforcement shall take no action that might prejudice its obligations under article 110.

(b) Where the Court cannot agree to the circumstances referred to in subparagraph (a), it shall notify the State of enforcement and proceed in accordance with article 104, paragraph 1.

3. In exercising its discretion to make a designation under paragraph 1, the Court shall take into account the following:

(a) The principle that States Parties should share the responsibility for enforcing sentences of imprisonment, in accordance with principles of equitable distribution, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence;

(b) The application of widely accepted international treaty standards governing the treatment of prisoners;

(c) The views of the sentenced person;

(d) The nationality of the sentenced person;

(e) Such other factors regarding the circumstances of the crime or the person sentenced, or the effective enforcement of the sentence, as may be appropriate in designating the State of enforcement.

4. If no State is designated under paragraph 1, the sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a prison facility made available by the host State, in accordance with the conditions set out in the headquarters agreement referred to in article 3, paragraph 2. In such a case, the costs arising out of the enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be borne by the Court.

Article 105 Enforcement of the sentence

1. Subject to conditions which a State may have specified in accordance with article 103, paragraph 1 (b), the sentence of imprisonment shall be binding on the States Parties, which shall in no case modify it.

2. The Court alone shall have the right to decide any application for appeal and revision. The State of enforcement shall not impede the making of any such application by a sentenced person.