Protection of Witnesses from Intimidation
(1) If reasonable concern exists that by giving a statement or answering certain questions witnesses would put in danger their, their spouse’s, close relative’s or a close person's life, health, physical integrity, freedom or property of great value, witnesses may withhold from giving the data referred to in Article 113, paragraph 3 of the present Code, answering certain questions or giving the statement altogether until their protection is secured. If it finds that the refusal to give a statement is manifestly illfounded, the authority conducting the proceedings shall caution witnesses that fines specified in Article 119 of the present Code may be imposed on them.
(2) Witness protection shall consist of special ways of participating and hearing witnesses in the criminal procedure.
(3) Protection of witnesses and other persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may be secured beyond the criminal procedure as well, in line with the law regulating witness protection.
(4) The court shall inform the witness on the rights referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article.
Special Ways of Participating and Hearing Protected Witnesses
(1) Special ways of participating and hearing witnesses in the criminal procedure are: hearing of witnesses under pseudonym, hearing with assistance of technical devices (protective wall, voice simulators, devices for transmission of image and sound) and alike.
(2) If special way of hearing of witnesses in the procedure consists only of withholding data referred to in Article 113, paragraph 3 of the present Code, the hearing shall be done under pseudonym, while in other part of the procedure, the hearing shall be done in accordance with general provisions of the present Code on the hearing of witnesses.
(3) If special ways of participating and hearing witnesses in the procedure consists of withholding data referred to in Article 113, paragraph 3 of the present Code as well as of hiding the face of the witness, hearing shall be done through technical devices for transmission of image and sound. The specialist referred to in Article 282, paragraph 8 of the present Code shall operate a technical device. During the hearing, face and voice of the witness shall be changed. During the hearing, witnesses shall be in the room other than the one where the investigating judge and other persons present at the hearing are. The investigating judge shall ban all the questions which could lead to revealing the identity of witnesses.
(4) After the hearing has been completed, witnesses shall sign the record using pseudonym only in the presence of the investigative judge and court reporter.
(5) Persons who in whatever capacity, learn the details about the witness referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall keep them secret.
Deciding on Special Ways of Participating and Hearing Witnesses and Protection of Data
(1) The ruling on the special manner of participation and hearing of the protected witness in investigation shall be issued by the investigative judge at the motion of witnesses, the accused person, the defence counsel or the State Prosecutor, whereas at the main hearing it shall be issued by the Panel. The motion shall contain a statement of reasons.
(2) The investigating judge shall, prior to issuing the ruling, ascertain as to whether the testimony of the witness is of such a relevance to be given the status of a protected witness. For the purpose of ascertaining these facts, the investigating judge may fix a hearing for the State Prosecutor and the witness to appear in court.
(3) Details of the witness who is to participate in a special way in the procedure shall be sealed in a special cover and kept by the investigative judge. A note shall be put on the cover saying "Protected Witness – Secret". The cover envelope may be opened only by the panel adjudicating at the main hearing and the second instance court in the appellate procedure, but the opening thereof shall be entered into the record together with the names of the members of the panel who came to the knowledge of its contents. After this the cover shall be sealed again and returned to the investigative judge.
Probative Value of the Protected Witness’s Statement
(1) Provisions of Articles 120, 121 and 122 of the present Code shall be applied to the hearing of protected witness at the main hearing as well.
(2) A judgment may not be based solely on the statement given by the witness in the manner set forth in Articles 120, 121 and 122 of the present Code.
1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions: