Cooperation under procedures of national law

Australia

Australia - ICC Act 2002 (2016)

Part 4—Other requests by ICC

Division 3—Restrictions on provision of assistance


53 Procedure if assistance precluded under Australian law

If:

(a) the execution of a particular measure of assistance specified in a request for cooperation is prohibited in Australia; and
(b) the Attorney General consults with the ICC in accordance with subsection 11(2) in respect of the request; and
(c) the matter is not resolved but the ICC modifies the request so that it can be dealt with under this Act;

the Attorney General must deal with the request accordingly.

Part 4—Other requests by ICC

Division 15—Other types of assistance


103 Other types of assistance

(2) The Attorney General must refuse the request if the request is prohibited by Australian law and:

(a) the ICC does not modify the request as contemplated by paragraph 3 of article 93 of the Statute and section 53; or
(b) the assistance requested cannot be provided in a way referred to in paragraph 5 of article 93 of the Statute and subsection 11(2) or can only be provided subject to conditions that the ICC does not accept.

An Act to facilitate compliance by Australia with obligations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and for related purposes

Part 2—General provisions relating to requests by the ICC for cooperation

10 Execution of requests

A request for cooperation must be executed in accordance with the relevant procedure under the applicable Australian law (as provided in this Act).

If the request states that it should be executed in a particular manner that is not prohibited by Australian law or by using a particular procedure that is not prohibited by Australian law, the Attorney-General must use his or her best efforts to ensure that the request is executed in that manner or by using that procedure, as the case may be.

(3) This section does not affect the operation of subsection 106(1) (which allows the Prosecutor in certain circumstances to execute a request for cooperation to which Part 4 applies) or section 107 (which allows the Prosecutor in certain circumstances to conduct investigations in Australia).

An Act to facilitate compliance by Australia with obligations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and for related purposes

Part 4 Other requests by ICC

Division 3—Restrictions on provision of assistance

53 Procedure if assistance precluded under Australian law

If: the execution of a particular measure of assistance specified in a request for cooperation is prohibited in Australia; and

the Attorney-General consults with the ICC in accordance with subsection 11(2) in respect of the request; and

the matter is not resolved but the ICC modifies the request so that it can be dealt with under this Act;
the Attorney-General must deal with the request accordingly.

An Act to facilitate compliance by Australia with obligations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and for related purposes

Part 4 Other requests by ICC

Division 15—Other types of assistance

103 Other types of assistance

(1) This section applies if:

(2) The Attorney-General must refuse the request if the request is prohibited by Australian law and:
the ICC does not modify the request as contemplated by paragraph 3 of article 93 of the Statute and section 53; or

the assistance requested cannot be provided in a way referred to in paragraph 5 of article 93 of the Statute and subsection 11(2) or can only be provided subject to conditions that the ICC does not accept.

Australia - Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act No. 85 1987 (2018)

Part I—Preliminary
9 Assistance may be provided subject to conditions
Assistance under this Act may be provided to a foreign country subject to such conditions as the Attorney General determines.

10 Request by Australia
(1) A request for international assistance in a criminal matter that Australia is authorised to make under this Act may be made only by the Attorney General.
(2) Subsection (1) does not prevent the Attorney General on behalf of Australia from requesting international assistance in a criminal matter other than assistance of a kind that may be requested under this Act.

Part I—Preliminary
11 Request by foreign country
(1) A request by a foreign country for international assistance in a criminal matter may be made to the Attorney General or a person authorised by the Attorney General, in writing, to receive requests by foreign countries under this Act.
(2) A request must be in writing and must include or be accompanied by the following information:
(a) the name of the authority concerned with the criminal matter to which the request relates;
(b) a description of the nature of the criminal matter and a statement setting out a summary of the relevant facts and laws;
(c) a description of the purpose of the request and of the nature of the assistance being sought;
(d) any information that may assist in giving effect to the request.
However, a failure to comply with this subsection is not a ground for refusing the request.
(3) Where a request by a foreign country is made to a person authorised under subsection (1), the request shall be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to have been made to the Attorney General.
(4) If a foreign country makes a request to a court in Australia for international assistance in a criminal matter:
(a) the court must refer the request to the Attorney General; and
(b) the request is then taken, for the purposes of this Act, to have been made to the Attorney General.

Part II—Assistance in relation to taking of evidence and production of documents or other articles
Division 2—Requests by foreign countries
13 Requests by foreign countries for the taking of evidence or the production of documents
(1) This section applies if a foreign country (the requesting country) requests:
(a) any of the following:
(i) that evidence be taken in Australia;
(ii) that evidence be taken in Australia and a tape recording be made of the evidence taken;
(iii) that evidence be taken in Australia for live transmission by means of video link to a courtroom or other place in the requesting country; or
(b) that documents or other articles in Australia be produced;
for the purposes of a proceeding in relation to a criminal matter in that country or another foreign country (the foreign proceeding).
(1A) The Attorney General may, by writing in accordance with the approved form, authorise:
(a) the taking of the evidence and its transmission to the requesting country; or
(b) the production of the documents or other articles and their transmission to the requesting country.
(2) If the Attorney General gives an authorisation under subsection (1A):
(a) in the case of the taking of evidence—a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge may do all or any of the following:
(i) take evidence on oath or affirmation of the witness appearing before the Magistrate or Judge to give evidence in relation to the matter;
(ii) direct that all or part of the proceeding be conducted in private;
(iii) require a person to leave the place in Australia where the giving of evidence is taking place or going to take place;
(iv) prohibit or restrict the publication of evidence given in the proceeding or of the name of a party to, or a witness in, the foreign proceeding;
(v) subject to subsection 13AB(1), require the production of documents or other articles;
(vi) take such action as the Magistrate or Judge considers appropriate to facilitate the foreign proceeding;
(vii) perform any other function required by the regulations; or
(b) in the case of the production of documents or other articles—a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge may, subject to subsection 13AB(1), require the production of the documents or other articles and, where the documents or other articles are produced, a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge must send the documents, or copies of the documents certified by that Magistrate or Judge to be true copies, or the other articles, to the Attorney General.
Note 1: Subparagraph (2)(a)(i)—see also subsection (2C).
Note 2: Subparagraphs (2)(a)(ii), (iii) and (iv)—see also subsection (2B).
(2A) However, a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge may not make a ruling about the admissibility of evidence in a foreign proceeding.
(2B) If a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge is taking evidence for live transmission by means of video link to a courtroom or other place in the requesting country, the Magistrate or Judge:
(a) may only exercise the powers mentioned in subparagraphs (2)(a)(ii), (iii) and (iv) at the request of the foreign court; and
(b) may, at the request of the foreign court, assist with the administering by the foreign court of an oath or affirmation; and
(c) may administer an oath or affirmation.
(2C) If a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge takes evidence as mentioned in subparagraph (2)(a)(i) but not for live transmission by means of video link to a courtroom, or other place, in the requesting country, the Magistrate or Judge must:
(a) if the requesting country requests that a tape recording be made of the evidence taken—cause a tape recording to be made of the evidence, certify that the evidence on the tape recording was taken by the Magistrate or Judge and cause the tape recording, or a copy of it, to be sent to the Attorney General; and
(b) in any other case—cause the evidence to be put in writing, certify that the evidence was taken by the Magistrate or Judge and cause the writing so certified to be sent to the Attorney General.
(2D) If, in taking evidence as mentioned in paragraph (2)(a), a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge requires the production of documents or other articles under subparagraph (2)(a)(v), a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge must send the documents, or copies of the documents certified by that Magistrate or Judge to be true copies, or the other articles, to the Attorney General.
(3) The evidence of such a witness may be taken in the presence or absence of the person to whom the proceeding in the requesting country relates or of his or her legal representative (if any).
(4) The Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge conducting a proceeding under subsection (2) may permit:
(a) the person to whom the proceeding in the requesting country relates;
(b) any other person giving evidence or producing documents or other articles at the proceeding before the Magistrate or Judge; and
(c) the relevant authority of the requesting country;
to have legal representation at the proceeding before the Magistrate or Judge.
(4A) If the requesting country has so requested, the Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge conducting a proceeding under subsection (2) may permit:
(a) any person to whom the proceeding in the requesting country relates or that person’s legal representative; or
(b) the legal representative of the relevant authority of the requesting country;
to examine or cross examine in person, or through a video link from the requesting country, any person giving evidence or producing a document or other article, at the proceeding.
(4B) For the purposes of Part III of the Crimes Act 1914:
(a) the proceeding before the Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge is a judicial proceeding; and
(b) evidence taken from a witness on oath or affirmation is testimony given in a judicial proceeding.
(5) The certificate by the Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge under subsection (2) shall state whether, when the evidence was taken or the documents or other articles were produced, any of the following persons were present:
(a) the person to whom the proceeding in the requesting country relates or his or her legal representative (if any);
(b) any other person giving evidence or producing documents or other articles or his or her legal representative (if any).

Part II—Assistance in relation to taking of evidence and production of documents or other articles
Division 2—Requests by foreign countries
13A Requests by foreign countries for provision of material lawfully obtained
(1) If:
(a) a foreign country (the requesting country) has commenced an investigation into, or proceedings in relation to, a serious offence against the laws of that country; and
(b) that foreign country requests the provision of material relevant to that investigation or those proceedings; and
(c) the Attorney General is satisfied that the material requested is:
(i) material lawfully obtained by an enforcement agency in Australia; and
(ii) material lawfully in the possession of that enforcement agency;
the Attorney General may, by writing in accordance with the approved form, authorise the provision of that material to the requesting country.
(2) The Attorney General may only authorise the provision to the requesting country of material specified in column 1 of the following table if the request relates to a serious offence against the laws of that country specified in column 2 of the table:

Offences for which provision of particular material may be authorised
Item Column 1 Column 2
1 material that is or includes protected information a serious offence punishable by a maximum penalty of imprisonment for 3 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty
2 material that is or includes lawfully accessed information or stored communications warrant information a serious offence punishable by a maximum penalty of:
(a) imprisonment for 3 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty; or
(b) a fine of an amount that is at least equivalent to 900 penalty units
3 material that is or includes lawfully intercepted information or interception warrant information (a) a serious offence punishable by a maximum penalty of imprisonment for 7 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty; or
(b) a cartel offence punishable by a maximum penalty of a fine of an amount that is at least equivalent to $10,000,000

Part III—Assistance in relation to search and seizure
15 Requests by foreign countries for search and seizure—action by Attorney General
Where:
(a) a proceeding or investigation relating to a criminal matter involving a serious offence has commenced in a foreign country;
(b) there are reasonable grounds to believe that evidential material relating to the investigation or proceeding is located in Australia; and
(c) the foreign country requests the Attorney General to arrange for the evidential material to be obtained;
the Attorney General may, in his or her discretion, authorise a police officer, in writing, to apply to a Magistrate or eligible Federal Circuit Court Judge for one or more search warrants in respect of the evidential material.
Note: Divisions 2 and 3 of Part VIIA make provision relating to applications for, and the issue and execution of, search warrants requested by foreign countries.

Part IIIBA—Assistance in relation to use of surveillance devices
15CA Requests by foreign countries for surveillance devices
(1) The Attorney General may, in his or her discretion, authorise an eligible law enforcement officer, in writing, to apply for a surveillance device warrant under section 14 of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004 if the Attorney General is satisfied that:
(a) an investigation, or investigative proceeding, relating to a criminal matter involving an offence against the law of a foreign country (the requesting country) that is punishable by a maximum penalty of imprisonment for 3 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty has commenced in the requesting country; and
(b) the requesting country requests the Attorney General to arrange for the use of a surveillance device; and
(c) the requesting country has given appropriate undertakings in relation to:
(i) ensuring that the information obtained as a result of the use of the surveillance device will only be used for the purpose for which it is communicated to the requesting country; and
(ii) the destruction of a document or other thing containing information obtained as a result of the use of the surveillance device; and
(iii) any other matter the Attorney General considers appropriate.
(2) In this section:
eligible law enforcement officer means a person mentioned in column 3 of item 5 of the table in subsection 6A(6), or in column 3 of item 5 of the table in subsection 6A(7), of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004.

15CB Simplified outline of this Part
• If a foreign country requests the Attorney General to arrange for access to data held in a computer, the Attorney General may authorise an eligible law enforcement officer to apply for a computer access warrant under section 27A of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004.
• The authorisation relates to an investigation, or investigative proceeding, relating to a criminal matter involving an offence against the law of the foreign country.
Note: See subsection 27A(4) of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004.
15CC Requests by foreign countries for assistance in relation to data held in computers
(1) The Attorney General may, in the Attorney General’s discretion, authorise an eligible law enforcement officer, in writing, to apply for a computer access warrant under section 27A of the Surveillance Devices Act 2004 if the Attorney General is satisfied that:
(a) an investigation, or investigative proceeding, relating to a criminal matter involving an offence against the law of a foreign country (the requesting country) that is punishable by a maximum penalty of imprisonment for 3 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty has commenced in the requesting country; and
(b) the requesting country requests the Attorney General to arrange for access to data held in a computer (the target computer); and
(c) the requesting country has given appropriate undertakings in relation to:
(i) ensuring that data obtained as a result of access under the warrant will only be used for the purpose for which it is communicated to the requesting country; and
(ii) the destruction of a document or other thing containing data obtained as a result of access under the warrant; and
(iii) any other matter the Attorney General considers appropriate.

Part IIIB—Assistance in relation to telecommunications data
15D Requests by foreign countries for telecommunications data
(1) This section applies if:
(a) a foreign country requests the disclosure of specified information or specified documents that come into existence during a specified period; and
(b) the information or documents relate to the fact of a communication passing over a telecommunications system.
(2) To avoid doubt, information or documents do not relate to the fact of a communication passing over a telecommunications system:
(a) if the information is the contents or substance of a communication; or
(b) to the extent that the documents contain the contents or substance of a communication.
(3) The Attorney General may authorise the making of an authorisation under section 180B of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979, of a disclosure of information or documents to which this section applies, if he or she is satisfied that:
(a) an investigation relating to a criminal matter involving an offence against the law of the foreign country has commenced in that country; and
(b) the offence:
(i) is punishable by imprisonment for 3 years or more, imprisonment for life or the death penalty; or
(ii) involves an act or omission that, if it had occurred in Australia, would have constituted a serious offence within the meaning of section 5D of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

Part IVA—Forensic procedures
Division 2—Requests by foreign countries
28B Requests by foreign countries for forensic procedures
(1) If a foreign country requests that a forensic procedure be carried out on a person, the Attorney General may authorise a constable to apply, in accordance with Part ID of the Crimes Act 1914, to a magistrate for an order for the carrying out of the forensic procedure on the person, so long as, if the person is a suspect within the meaning of subsection 23WA(1) of that Act, the constable is an authorised applicant within the meaning of that subsection.
(2) The Attorney General must not authorise a constable under subsection (1) unless the Attorney General is satisfied of the following matters:
(a) a request has been made by a foreign country that a forensic procedure be carried out on a person;
(b) unless the person is a child or an incapable person—the foreign country has:
(i) started investigating whether the person has committed a foreign serious offence against its laws; or
(ii) started proceedings against the person for a foreign serious offence;
(c) the person is, or is believed to be, in Australia;
(d) the foreign country has given:
(i) appropriate undertakings in relation to the retention, use and destruction of forensic material, or of information obtained from analysis of that forensic material; and
(ii) any other undertakings that the Attorney General considers necessary;
(e) unless the person is a child or an incapable person—the person has been given an opportunity to consent to the forensic procedure and has not consented to it;
(f) if the person is a child or an incapable person, the matters specified in subsection (3).
(3) If the person is a child or an incapable person, the Attorney General must:
(a) be satisfied that either of the following applies:
(i) the consent of the parent or guardian cannot reasonably be obtained or has been withdrawn;
(ii) the parent or guardian is a suspect in relation to the foreign serious offence; and
(b) believe that, having regard to the best interests of the child or incapable person, it is appropriate to make the authorisation.

Part VI—Proceeds of crime
Division 2—Requests by foreign countries
Subdivision A—Enforcement of foreign orders
34A Registration of foreign orders
(1A) An application to a court for registration of a foreign order in accordance with an authorisation under this Subdivision must be to a court with proceeds jurisdiction.
(1) If a proceeds of crime authority applies to a court with proceeds jurisdiction for registration of a foreign order in accordance with an authorisation under this Subdivision, the court must register the order accordingly, unless the court is satisfied that it would be contrary to the interests of justice to do so.
(2) The proceeds of crime authority must give notice of the application:
(a) to specified persons the authority has reason to suspect may have an interest in the property; and
(b) to such other persons as the court directs.
(3) However, the court may consider the application without notice having been given if the proceeds of crime authority requests the court to do so.
(4) If a foreign pecuniary penalty order or a foreign restraining order is registered in a court under this Subdivision:
(a) a copy of any amendments made to the order (whether before or after registration) may be registered in the same way as the order; and
(b) the amendments do not, for the purposes of this Act and the Proceeds of Crime Act, have effect until they are registered.
(5) An order or an amendment of an order is to be registered in a court by the registration, in accordance with the rules of the court, of:
(a) a copy of the appropriate order or amendment sealed by the court or other authority making that order or amendment; or
(b) a copy of that order or amendment duly authenticated in accordance with subsection 43(2).

34B Enforcement of foreign forfeiture orders
(1) A foreign forfeiture order registered in a court under this Subdivision has effect, and may be enforced, as if it were a forfeiture order made by the court under the Proceeds of Crime Act at the time of registration.
(2) In particular, section 68 of the Proceeds of Crime Act applies in relation to the forfeiture order as if:
(a) the reference in subparagraph 68(1)(b)(i) of that Act to a proceeds of crime authority having applied for the order were a reference to the foreign forfeiture order having been made; and
(b) subparagraph 68(1)(b)(ii) of that Act did not apply if the person in question died after the authority applied for registration of the order under section 34A of this Act.
(3) Subject to section 34C, property that is subject to a foreign forfeiture order registered under this Subdivision may be disposed of, or otherwise dealt with, in accordance with any direction of the Attorney General or of a person authorised by the Attorney General in writing for the purposes of this subsection.
(4) Sections 69 and 70 and Divisions 5 to 7 of Part 2 2 of the Proceeds of Crime Act do not apply in relation to a foreign forfeiture order registered under this Subdivision.

34D Enforcement of foreign pecuniary penalty orders
(1) A foreign pecuniary penalty order registered in a court under this Subdivision has effect, and may be enforced, as if it were a pecuniary penalty order that:
(a) was made by the court under the Proceeds of Crime Act at the time of registration; and
(b) requires the payment to the Commonwealth of the amount payable under the order.
(2) Any amount paid (whether in Australia, in the foreign country in which the order was made or elsewhere) in satisfaction of the foreign pecuniary penalty order is taken to have been paid in satisfaction of the debt that arises because of the registration of the foreign pecuniary penalty order in that court.
(3) Division 5 of Part 2 4 of the Proceeds of Crime Act does not apply in relation to a foreign pecuniary penalty order registered under this Subdivision.

Part VI—Proceeds of crime
Division 2—Requests by foreign countries
Subdivision A—Enforcement of foreign orders
34E Enforcement of foreign restraining orders
(1) A foreign restraining order registered in a court under this Subdivision has effect, and may be enforced, as if it were a restraining order that:
(a) was made by the court under the Proceeds of Crime Act at the time of the registration; and
(b) directed that the property specified in the order is not to be disposed of or otherwise dealt with by any person.
(2) In particular:
(a) section 288 of that Act applies as if:
(i) the reference in that section to the Official Trustee’s exercise of powers under that Act included a reference to the Official Trustee’s exercise of those powers in relation to a foreign restraining order so registered; and
(ii) the reference in that section to the Official Trustee’s performance of functions or duties under that Act included a reference to the Official Trustee’s performance of those functions or duties in relation to such a foreign restraining order; and
(b) section 289 of that Act applies as if the reference in that section to controlled property included a reference to property that is subject to an order under section 35; and
(c) section 290 of that Act applies as if the reference in that section to the controlled property were a reference to the property that is subject to an order under section 35.
(3) Divisions 1, 2 and 3 of Part 2 1, section 33, Divisions 5 and 6 of Part 2 1 and sections 142, 143, 169, 170 and 282 to 287 of the Proceeds of Crime Act do not apply in relation to a foreign restraining order registered under this Subdivision.
Note: Division 3 of this Part contains further provisions relating to registered foreign restraining orders.

Rome Statute

Article 88 Availability of procedures under national law

States Parties shall ensure that there are procedures available under their national law for all of the forms of cooperation which are specified under this Part.

Article 89 Surrender of persons to the Court

1. The Court may transmit a request for the arrest and surrender of a person, together with the material supporting the request outlined in article 91, to any State on the territory of which that person may be found and shall request the cooperation of that State in the arrest and surrender of such a person. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and the procedure under their national law, comply with requests for arrest and surrender.

Article 93 Other forms of cooperation

1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:

(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;

(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;

(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;

(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;

(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;

(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;

(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;

(h) The execution of searches and seizures;

(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;

(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;

(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and

(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.

Article 99 Execution of requests under articles 93 and 96

1. Requests for assistance shall be executed in accordance with the relevant procedure under the law of the requested State and, unless prohibited by such law, in the manner specified in the request, including following any procedure outlined therein or permitting persons specified in the request to be present at and assist in the execution process.