Cooperation under procedures of national law

Kenya

Kenya - Criminal Procedure Code 1930 (2015) EN

PART III – GENERAL PROVISIONS

ARREST, ESCAPE AND RETAKING

Arrest Generally

21. Arrest

(1) In making an arrest the police officer or other person making it shall actually touch or confine the body of the person to be arrested, unless there be a submission to custody by word or action.

(2) If a person forcibly resists the endeavour to arrest him, or attempts to evade the arrest, the police officer or other person may use all means necessary to effect the arrest.

(3) Nothing in this section shall justify the use of greater force than was reasonable in the particular circumstances in which it was employed or was necessary for the apprehension of the offender.

22. Search of place entered by person sought to be arrested

(1) If any person acting under a warrant of arrest, or any police officer having authority to arrest, has reason to believe that the person to be arrested has entered into or is within any place, the person residing in or being in charge of that place shall, on demand of the person so acting or the police officer, allow him free ingress thereto and afford all reasonable facilities for a search therein.

(2) If ingress to a place cannot be obtained under subsection (1), it shall be lawful in any case for a person acting under a warrant, and in any case in which a warrant may issue but cannot be obtained without affording the person to be arrested an opportunity to escape, for a police officer to enter the place and search therein, and, in order to effect an entrance into the place, to break open any outer or inner door or window of a house or place, whether that of the person to be arrested or of another person, or otherwise effect entry into the house or place, if after notification of his authority and purpose, and demand of admittance duly made, he cannot otherwise obtain admittance :
Provided that if any such place is an apartment in the actual occupancy of a woman (not being the person to be arrested) who, according to custom, does not appear in public, the person or police officer shall, before entering the apartment, give notice to the woman that she is at liberty to withdraw, and shall afford her every reasonable facility for withdrawing, and may then break open the
apartment and enter it.

23. Power to break out of house, etc., for purposes of liberation
A police officer or other person authorized to make an arrest may break out of any house or place in order to liberate himself or any other person who, having lawfully entered for the purpose of making an arrest, is detained therein.

24. No unnecessary restraint
The person arrested shall not be subjected to more restraint than is necessary to prevent his escape.

25. Search of arrested persons

Whenever a person is arrested—

(a) by a police officer under a warrant which does not provide for the taking of bail, or under a warrant which provides for the taking of bail but the person arrested cannot furnish bail ; or

(b) without warrant, or by a private person under a warrant, and the person arrested cannot legally be admitted to bail or is unable to furnish bail, the police officer making the arrest, or, when the arrest is made by a private person, the police officer to whom he makes over the person arrested, may
search that person and place in safe custody all articles, other than necessary
wearing apparel, found upon him.

26. Power to detain and search aircraft, vessels, vehicles and persons

(1) A police officer, or other person authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner of Police, may stop, search and detain—

(a) any aircraft, vessel or vehicle in or upon which there is reason to suspect that anything stolen or unlawfully obtained may be found ; or
(b) any aircraft, vessel or vehicle which there is reason to suspect has been used or employed in the commission or to facilitate the commission of an offence under the provisions of Chapters XXVI,
XXVIII and XXIX of the Penal Code (Cap 63) ; or
(c) any person who may be reasonably suspected of having in his possession or conveying in any manner anything stolen or unlawfully obtained.

(2) No person shall be entitled to damages or compensation for loss or damage suffered by him in respect of the detention under this section of an aircraft, vessel or vehicle.

(3) For the purposes of this section, “aircraft”, “vessel” and “vehicle”, respectively, include everything contained in, being on or attached to an aircraft, vessel or vehicle, as the case may be, which, in the opinion of the court, forms part of the equipment of the aircraft, vessel or vehicle.

PART IV – PROVISIONS RELATING TO ALL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

PROCESSES TO COMPEL THE APPEARANCE OF ACCUSED PERSONS

Warrant of Arrest

100. Warrant after issue of summons

Notwithstanding the issue of a summons, a warrant may be issued at any time before or after the time appointed in the summons for the appearance of the accused.

101. Warrant on disobedience of summons

If the accused does not appear at the time and place appointed in and by the summons, and his personal attendance has not been dispensed with under section 99, the court may issue a warrant to apprehend him and cause him to be brought before it ; but no warrant shall be issued unless a complaint has been made upon oath.

102. Form, contents and duration of warrant

(1) Every warrant of arrest shall be under the hand of the judge or magistrate issuing it and shall bear the seal of the court.

(2) Every warrant shall state shortly the offence with which the person against whom it is issued is charged, and shall name or otherwise describe that person, and shall order the person or persons to whom it is directed to apprehend the person against whom it is issued and bring him before the court issuing the warrant, or before some other court having jurisdiction in the case, to answer to the charge therein mentioned and to be further dealt with according to law.

(3) A warrant shall remain in force until it is executed or until it is cancelled by the court which issued it.

103. Court may direct security to be taken

(1) A court issuing a warrant for the arrest of a person in respect of an offence other than murder, treason or rape may direct by endorsement on the warrant that, if the person executes a bond with sufficient sureties for his attendance before the court at a specified time and thereafter until otherwise directed by the court, the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall take the security and shall release the person from custody.

(2) The endorsement shall state—

(a) the number of sureties ;
(b) the amount in which they and the person for whose arrest the warrant is issued are to be respectively bound ; and
(c) the time at which he is to attend before the court.

(3) Whenever security is taken under this section, the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall forward the bond to the court.

104. Warrants, to whom directed

(1) A warrant of arrest may be directed to one or more police officers, or to one police officer and to all other police officers of the area within which the court has jurisdiction, or generally to all police officers of the area :
Provided that a court issuing a warrant may, if its immediate execution is necessary, and no police officer is immediately available, direct it to any other person or persons, and such person or persons shall execute the same.

(2) When a warrant is directed to more officers or persons than one, it may be executed by all or by any one or more of them.

105. Warrants may be directed to landholders, etc.

(1) A magistrate empowered to hold a subordinate court of the first class may direct a warrant to a landholder, farmer or manager of land within the local limits of his jurisdiction for the arrest of an escaped convict or person who has been accused of a cognizable offence and has eluded pursuit.

(2) The landholder, farmer or manager shall acknowledge in writing the receipt of the warrant and shall execute it if the person for whose arrest it was issued is in or enters on his land or farm or the land under his charge.

(3) When the person against whom the warrant is issued is arrested, he shall be made over with the warrant to the nearest police officer, who shall cause him to be taken before a magistrate having jurisdiction, unless security is taken under section 103.

106. Execution of warrant directed to police officer

A warrant directed to a police officer may also be executed by another police officer whose name is endorsed upon the warrant by the officer to whom it is directed or endorsed.

107. Notification of substance of warrant

The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall notify the substance thereof to the person to be arrested, and, if so required, shall show him the warrant.

108. Person arrested to be brought before court without delay
The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall (subject to the provisions of section 103 as to security) without unnecessary delay bring the person arrested before the court before which he is required by law to produce that person.

109. Where warrant may be executed

A warrant of arrest may be executed at any place in Kenya.

110. Forwarding of warrants for execution outside jurisdiction

(1) When a warrant of arrest is to be executed outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court issuing it, the court may, instead of directing the warrant to a police officer, forward it by post or otherwise to a magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction it is to be executed.

(2) The magistrate to whom a warrant is so forwarded shall endorse his name thereon, and, if practicable, cause it to be executed in the manner hereinbefore provided within the local limits of his jurisdiction.

111. Warrant directed to police officer for execution outside jurisdiction

(1) When a warrant of arrest directed to a police officer is to be executed outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court issuing it, he shall take it for endorsement to a magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction it is to be executed.

(2) The magistrate shall endorse his name thereon, and the endorsement shall be sufficient authority to the police officer to whom the warrant is directed to execute it within those limits, and the local police officers shall, if so required, assist that officer in executing the warrant.

(3) Whenever there is reason to believe that the delay occasioned by obtaining the endorsement of the magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the warrant is to be executed will prevent its execution, the police officer to whom it is directed may execute it without endorsement in any place
outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court which issued it.

112. Procedure on arrest of person outside jurisdiction

(1) When a warrant of arrest is executed outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court by which it was issued, the person arrested shall, unless the court which issued the warrant is within twenty miles of the place of arrest, or is nearer than the magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the arrest was made, or unless security is taken under section 103, be taken before the
magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the arrest was made.

(2) The magistrate shall, if the person arrested appears to be the person intended by the court which issued the warrant, direct his removal in custody to that court :
Provided that if the person has been arrested for an offence other than murder, treason or rape, and he is ready and willing to give bail to the satisfaction of the magistrate, or if a direction has been endorsed under section 103 on the warrant and the person is ready and willing to give the security required by the direction, the magistrate shall take the bail or security, as the case may be, and shall forward the bond to the court which issued the warrant.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prevent a police officer from taking security under section 103.

113. Irregularities in warrant

An irregularity or defect in the substance or form of a warrant, and any variance between it and the written complaint or information, or between either and the evidence produced on the part of the prosecution at a trial, shall not affect the validity of any proceedings at or subsequent to the hearing of the case, but, if a variance appears to the court to be such that the accused has been thereby deceived or misled, the court may, at the request of the accused, adjourn the hearing of the case to some future date, and in the meantime remand the accused or admit him to bail.


Miscellaneous Provisions Regarding Processes

114. Power to take bond for appearance

Where a person for whose appearance or arrest the officer presiding in a court is empowered to issue a summons or warrant is present in court, the officer may require the person to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his appearance in that court.

115. Arrest for breach of bond

When a person who is bound by a bond taken under this Code to appear before a court does not so appear, the officer presiding may issue a warrant directing that the person be arrested and produced before him.

116. Power of court to order prisoner to be brought before it

(1) Where a person for whose appearance or arrest a court is empowered to issue a summons or warrant is confined in prison within the local limits of the jurisdiction of that court, the court may issue an order to the officer in charge of the prison requiring him to bring the prisoner in proper custody, at a time to be named in the order, before the court.

(2) The officer so in charge, on receipt of the order, shall provide for the safe custody of the prisoner during his absence from the prison.

117. Provisions of this Part generally applicable to summonses and warrants

The provisions of this Part relating to a summons and warrant, and their issue, service and execution, shall, so far as may be, apply to every summons and every warrant of arrest issued under this Code.

PART IV – PROVISIONS RELATING TO ALL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

SEARCH WARRANTS

118. Power to issue search warrant

Where it is proved on oath to a court or a magistrate that anything upon, with or in respect of which an offence has been committed, or anything which is necessary for the conduct of an investigation into an offence, is, or is reasonably suspected to be, in any place, building, ship, aircraft, vehicle, box or receptacle, the court or a magistrate may by written warrant (called a search warrant) authorize a police officer or a person named in the search warrant to search the place, building, ship, aircraft, vehicle, box or receptacle (which shall be named or described in the warrant) for that thing and, if the thing be found, to seize it and take it before a court having jurisdiction to be dealt with according to law.

119. Execution of search warrants

A search warrant may be issued on any day (including Sunday), and may be executed on any day (including Sunday) between the hours of sunrise and sunset, but the court may, by the warrant, authorize the police officer or other person to whom it is addressed to execute it at any hour.

120. Persons in charge of closed place to allow ingress and egress

(1) Whenever a building or other place liable to search is closed, a person residing in or being in charge of the building or place shall, on demand of the police officer or other person executing the search warrant and on production of the warrant, allow him free ingress thereto and egress therefrom and afford all reasonable facilities for a search therein.

(2) If ingress into or egress from the building or other place cannot be so obtained, the police officer or other person executing the search warrant may proceed in the manner prescribed by section 22 or section 23.

(3) Where a person in or about the building or place is reasonably suspected of concealing about his person an article for which search should be made, that person may be searched.

(4) If that person is a woman the provisions of section 27 shall be observed.

121. Detention of property seized

(1) When anything is so seized and brought before a court, it may be detained until the conclusion of the case or the investigation, reasonable care being taken for its preservation.

(2) If an appeal is made, or if a person is committed for trial, the court may order it to be further detained for the purpose of the appeal or the trial.

(3) If no appeal is made, or if no person is committed for trial, the court shall direct the thing to be restored to the person from whom it was taken, unless the court sees fit or is authorized or required by law to dispose of it otherwise.

122. Provisions applicable to search warrants

The provisions of subsections (1) and (3) of section 102, and sections 104, 106, 109, 110 and 111, shall, so far as may be, apply to search warrants issued under section 118.

PART IV – PROVISIONS RELATING TO ALL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

COMPELLING ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES

146. Warrant for witness in first instance

If the court is satisfied by evidence on oath that the person will not attend unless compelled to do so, it may at once issue a warrant for the arrest and production of the witness before the court at a time and place to be therein specified.

147. Mode of dealing with witness arrested under warrant

When a witness is arrested under a warrant, the court may, on his furnishing security by recognizance to the satisfaction of the court for his appearance at the hearing of the case, order him to be released from custody, or shall, on his failing to furnish security, order him to be detained for production at the hearing.

PART IV – PROVISIONS RELATING TO ALL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

COMPELLING ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES

148. Power of court to order prisoner to be brought up for examination

(1) A court desirous of examining, as a witness, in a case pending before it, a person confined in prison within the local limits of its jurisdiction, may issue an order to the officer in charge of the prison requiring him to bring the prisoner in proper custody, at a time to be named in the order, before the court for examination.

(2) The officer so in charge, on receipt of the order, shall act in accordance therewith, and shall provide for the safe custody of the prisoner during his absence from the prison.

PART IV – PROVISIONS RELATING TO ALL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES

150. Power to summon witnesses, or examine person present

A court may, at any stage of a trial or other proceeding under this Code, summon or call any person as a witness, or examine any person in attendance though not summoned as a witness, or recall and re-examine a person already examined, and the court shall summon and examine or recall and re-examine any such person if his evidence appears to it essential to the just decision of the case :
Provided that the prosecutor or the advocate for the prosecution or the defendant or his advocate shall have the right to cross-examine any such person, and the court shall adjourn the case for such time (if any) as it thinks necessary to enable the cross-examination to be adequately prepared if, in its opinion, either party may be prejudiced by the calling of that person as a witness.

151. Evidence to be given on oath

Every witness in a criminal cause or matter shall be examined upon oath, and the court before which any witness shall appear shall have full power and authority to administer the usual oath.

152. Refractory witnesses

(1) Whenever a person, appearing either in obedience to a summons or by virtue of a warrant, or being present in court and being verbally required by the court to give evidence—

(a) refuses to be sworn ; or
(b) having been sworn, refuses to answer any question put to him ; or
(c) refuses or neglects to produce any document or thing which he is required to produce ; or
(d) refuses to sign his deposition,
without offering sufficient excuse for his refusal or neglect, the court may adjourn the case for any period not exceeding eight days, and may in the meantime commit that person to prison, unless he sooner consents to do what is required of him.

(2) If the person, upon being brought before the court at or before the adjourned hearing, again refuses to do what is required of him, the court may again adjourn the case and commit him for the same period, and so again from time to time until the person consents to do what is so required of him.

(3) Nothing contained in this section shall affect the liability of any such person to any other punishment or proceeding for refusing or neglecting to do what is so required of him, or shall prevent the court from disposing of the case in the meantime according to any other sufficient evidence taken before it.

PART V – MODE OF TAKING AND RECORDING EVIDENCE IN TRIALS

HIGH COURT

201. Rules as to taking down of evidence

(1) The Chief Justice may make rules of court prescribing the manner in which evidence shall be taken down in cases coming before the High Court, and the judges shall take down the evidence or the substance thereof in accordance with those rules.

Kenya - International Crimes Act 2008 EN

PART III—GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO REQUESTS FOR ASSISTANCE

23.

(2) If the request for assistance specifies that it should be executed in a particular manner that is not prohibited by Kenyan law or by using a particular procedure that is not prohibited by Kenyan law, the Attorney-General or the Minister, as the case may be, shall use his best endeavours to ensure that the request is executed in that manner or using that procedure, as the case may require.

Kenya - Mutual Legal Assistance Act 2011 (2012) EN

PART III – MAKING AND EXECUTION OF LEGAL ASSISTANCE REQUESTS

7. Request from Kenya

(1) A request for legal assistance from Kenya shall be made by the Competent Authority.

(2) A request made under subsection (1) may be initiated by any law enforcement agency, or prosecution or judicial authority competent under Kenyan law.

(3) In the event of urgency or as permitted by any other written law, requests may be sent by direct transmission from a Competent Authority to a competent authority of a requested state for execution
subject to domestic law of the requested state.

(4) Where further information is required before a request under this section is executed, in so far as practicable, such information shall be provided for and within any deadlines as may be set by a requested state

PART IV – REQUEST FOR SPECIFIC FORMS OF LEGAL ASSISTANCE

12. Service of documents

(1) A request under this Act may seek assistance in the service of documents relevant to a criminal matter.

(2) The request made under subsection (1) shall be accompanied by the necessary documents to be served.

(3) The Central Authority shall ensure that the documents to be served are served either by—
(a) any particular method stated in the request, unless such method is contrary to Kenyan law; or
(b) any method prescribed by Kenyan law for the service of documents in criminal proceedings.

(4) The Central Authority shall transmit to a requesting state a certificate or other proof as to the service of the documents or, if they have not been served, as to the reasons which have prevented service.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 8(1) a requesting state may send legal documents directly to the intended person who is present in Kenya unless—
(a) the address of the person for whom the document is intended is unknown or uncertain; or
(b) the relevant law of a requesting state requires proof of service; or
(c) it has not been possible to serve the document by post; or
(d) there are reasons to believe that the dispatch by post will be ineffective or is inappropriate.


13. Provision or production of Records

(1) A request under this Act may seek the provision or production of any documents, records or other material relevant to a criminal matter arising in a requesting state.

(2) Where documents or records requested under subsection (1) are not publicly available, the Competent Authority may provide copies of such documents, records or other material to the same extent and under the same conditions as applies to provision of such records to Kenya law enforcement agencies or prosecution or judicial authorities.


14. Examination of witnesses

(1) A request under this Act may seek assistance in the examination of witnesses.

(2) The request made under subsection (1) shall specify as appropriate, and so far as the circumstances of the case may permit—
(a) the names and addresses or the official designations of the witnesses to be examined;
(b) the questions to be put to the witnesses or the subject matter about which they are to be examined;
(c) whether it is desired that the witnesses be examined orally or in writing;
(d) whether it is desired that an oath be administered to the witnesses or, as Kenyan law allows, that they be required to make their solemn affirmation;
(e) any provisions of the law of the requesting state as to privilege or exemption from giving evidence which appear especially relevant to the request;
(f) any special requirements as to the manner of taking evidence relevant to its admissibility in a requesting state; and
(g) any other relevant information.

(3) The request may seek permission for, so far as Kenyan law permits, the accused person or his legal representative to attend the examination of the witness and ask questions of the witness.


15. Attendance of witness in requesting state

(1) A request under this Act may seek legal assistance in facilitating personal appearance as a witness before a court exercising jurisdiction in a requesting state.

(2) In making a request under subsection (1), a requesting state shall apply to the Central Authority at least thirty days prior to the date of appearance.

(3) In the event of urgency, the Central Authority may accept a shorter period of notice.

(4) The request under this section shall specify—
(a) the subject matter upon which it is desired to examine the witness;
(b) the date on which the appearance of the witness is required;
(c) the reasons why personal appearance of the witness is required; and
(d) details of the travelling, subsistence and other expenses payable by a requesting state in respect of personal appearance of the witness.

(5) The Central Authority shall notify a person, in accordance with Kenyan law, whose appearance as a witness in a requesting state is desired, and shall—
(a) enquire whether the person agrees to appear;
(b) inform a requesting state of the answer; and
(c) if the person is willing to appear, make appropriate arrangements to facilitate personal appearance of the witness.

(6) A person whose appearance as a witness is the subject of a request may refuse to appear as a witness where Kenya law, either permits such a refusal or does not make him a compellable witness.

(7) Where a refusal is based on the grounds contained in subsection (6), the Central Authority shall provide a requesting state with a certificate setting out the relevant statutory provisions which permits such a refusal or does not make the witness a compellable witness under Kenyan law.

(8) A person served with summons to appear as a witness in a requesting state and who fails to comply with the summons shall not by reason thereof be liable to any penalty or measure of compulsion in either Kenya or the requesting state notwithstanding any contrary statement in the summons.


16. Voluntary attendance of persons in custody

(1) Subject to section 17, a request under this Act may seek the temporary transfer of a person in custody in Kenya for purposes of identification, providing assistance in obtaining evidence for investigations or prosecutions or to appear as a witness before a court exercising jurisdiction in a requesting state.

(2) A request made under this section shall—
(a) state the name of the person in custody;
(b) if possible, state the place of confinement of the person in custody;
(c) state the place to which the person in custody is sought to be transferred;
(d) specify the subject matter on which it is desired to examine the witness;
(e) state the reasons for which personal appearance of the witness is required; and
(f) specify the period of time at or before the expiration of which the person in custody is to be returned.

(3) A statement of consent from the person in custody whose copy shall be made available to the Central Authority shall be a prerequisite for the transfer.

(4) A person in custody whose transfer is the subject of a request and who does not consent to the transfer shall not by reason thereof be liable to any penalty or measure of compulsion in either Kenya or a requesting state.

(5) Where a person in custody is transferred, the Central Authority shall notify a requesting state of—
(a) the date upon which the person is due under the law of Kenya to be released from custody;
(b) the date by which the Central Authority requires the return of the person;
(c) any variations in such dates in (a) and (b).

(6) A requesting state shall keep the person transferred in custody, and shall return the person to Kenya when the presence of such person as a witness in the requesting state is no longer required, and in any case by the earlier of the dates notified under subsection (5) of this section.

(7) The obligation to return the person transferred shall subsist notwithstanding the fact that the person is a national of a requesting state.

(8) A requesting state to which the person is transferred shall not require Kenya to initiate extradition proceedings for the return of the person.

(9) Where a person in custody who is serving a term of imprisonment in Kenya is transferred to a requesting state under a request made in this section, the time spent in custody shall count as part of any sentence required to be served by that person in custody for the purposes of the Prisons Act (Cap. 90).

(10) Nothing in this section shall preclude the release in a requesting state without return to Kenya of any person transferred where the two States and the person concerned have agreed to such release.


17. Exception for Kenyan citizens or young persons

Section 16 shall not apply in respect of a person who, at the time the application is presented, is a Kenyan citizen or a child within the meaning of the Children Act (No. 8 of 2001).


18. Search and seizure

(1) A request under this Act may seek assistance in the search and seizure of property in Kenya.

(2) The request made under subsection (1) shall specify the property to be searched and seized and shall contain, so far as is reasonably practicable, all information available to a requesting state which may be required to be adduced in an application under Kenyan law for any necessary warrant or authorization to effect the search and seizure.

(3) Subject to the relevant law, the Competent Authority shall provide such certification as may be required by a requesting state concerning the result of any search, the place and circumstances of seizure, and the subsequent custody of the property seized.


19. Lending of exhibits

(1) A request under this Act may seek to have an exhibit that was admitted in evidence in a proceeding in respect of an offence in a court in Kenya lent to a requesting state.

(2) An application made under subsection (1) shall—
(a) contain a description of the exhibit requested to be lent;
(b) designate a person or class of persons to whom the exhibit is sought to be given;
(c) state the reasons for the request, as well as contain a description of any tests that are sought to be performed on the exhibit and a statement of the place where the tests will be performed;
(d) state the place to which the exhibit is sought to be removed; and
(e) specify a period of time at or before the expiration of which the exhibit is to be returned.

(3) Where an exhibit is lend to a requesting state upon request made under subsection (1), the Central Authority shall notify a requesting state of—
(a) description of the exhibit;
(b) description of any tests thereby authorized to be performed on the exhibit, as well as a statement of the place where the tests will be performed; and
(c) the period of time of which the exhibit shall be returned.


20. Presumption of continuity

The burden of proving that an exhibit, lent to a requesting state pursuant to a request under section 19 and returned to Kenya, is not in the same condition as it was when the lending was made or that it was tampered with after the lending was made shall be on the party who makes that allegation and in the absence of that proof, the exhibit shall be deemed to have been continuously in the possession of an authorized person or authority.


21. Defence request

(1) Where criminal proceedings have been instituted in Kenya against a person, or where a person is joined in such proceedings as a third party, the Competent Authority may, on application to the court by either the said person or his legal representative, issue a request for legal assistance to a requesting state.

(2) The fact that a request under subsection (1) originates from a person charged or his legal representative shall not be a ground for refusal by the Competent Authority to execute the request.


22. Use of video conferencing technology

A testimony, identification of a person or thing or any other form of legal assistance under this Part may be provided by use of video or audio transmission technology.


PART V – RECOVERY, FREEZING, CONFISCATION AND DISPOSAL OF ASSETS

23. Identification, tracing etc.

(1) Kenya shall assist in proceedings involving the identification, tracing, freezing, seizure and confiscation of the proceeds and instruments of crime under its laws or any other arrangement to which Kenya may be bound in relation to a requesting state.

(2) A request for legal assistance under this section shall include—
(a) details of the property in relation to which co-operation is sought;
(b) the connection, if any, between the property and the offences in respect of which the request is made;
(c) where known, details of any third party interests in the property; and
(d) a certified copy of the freezing or seizing decision or final decision of confiscation made by a court.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prejudice the rights of bona fide third parties.


24. Measures for asset recovery through international co-operation

When providing legal assistance under section 23 with respect to proceeds and instrumentalities of crime, Kenya shall take such measures, in accordance with the provisions of this Act or any other relevant law, as may be necessary to—
(a) permit a requesting state to give effect to an order of confiscation issued by its competent court or authority;
(b) permit competent authorities of a requesting state, where they have jurisdiction, to order the confiscation of such property of foreign origin by adjudication of an offence of money-laundering or such other offence as may be within its jurisdiction or by other procedures authorized under Kenyan law;
(c) allow confiscation of such property without a criminal conviction in cases in which the offender cannot be prosecuted by reason of death, flight or absence or in other appropriate cases.
(d) permit competent authorities of Kenya to freeze or seize property upon a freezing or seizure order issued by a court or a competent authority of such a requesting state that provides a reasonable basis for a requesting state to believe that there are sufficient grounds for taking such actions and that the property would eventually be subject to an order of confiscation for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section;
(e) permit competent authorities of Kenya to freeze or seize property upon a freezing or seizure order issued by a court or a competent authority of such a requesting state that provides a reasonable basis for a requesting state to believe that there are sufficient grounds for taking such actions and that the property would eventually be subject to an order of confiscation for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section;
(f) recognize a requesting state’s claim as a legitimate owner of property acquired through the commission of a criminal offence;
(g) consider taking any additional measures as to permit its competent authorities to preserve property for confiscation, such as on the basis of a foreign arrest or criminal charge related to the acquisition of such property.


25. Refusal of co-operation

In addition to the grounds of refusal set out in this Act, co-operation under this Part may be refused if a requesting state does not provide sufficient and timely evidence or if the property is of an insignificant value.


26. Return and disposal of assets

(1) Subject to the rights of third parties and in accordance with this Act or any other written law or any other arrangements to which Kenya is a bound, property confiscated under the provisions of this Act shall be disposed of, including return to a requesting state, upon request.

(2) Before the return of the property confiscated to a requesting state under subsection (1) and as a basis of return, Kenya shall—
(a) reasonably establish prior ownership of such property by a requesting state; or
(b) consider damage likely to be caused to a requesting state if the property is not returned; or
(c) consider the need for compensation to the victims of the crime in a requesting state.

(3) Where appropriate, unless parties decide otherwise, Kenya may deduct reasonable expenses incurred in investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings leading to the return or disposition of confiscated property under this section.


PART VI – INTERCEPTION OF COMMUNICATIONS, PRESERVATION OF COMMUNICATIONS DATA AND COVERT ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE

27. Interception of telecommunications

(1) For the purpose of a criminal investigation, Kenya may, in accordance with the provisions of this Act and any other relevant law, execute a request from a requesting state for—
(a) the interception and immediate transmission of telecommunications; or
(b) the interception, recording and subsequent transmission of telecommunications.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), a request may be made in relation to the use of means of telecommunications by the subject of the interception, if this subject is present in—
(a) Kenya and a requesting state needs the technical assistance of Kenya to intercept such communications; or,
(b) Kenya and a requesting state communications are capable of being intercepted; or
(c) a third state, which has been informed accordingly and a requesting state need the technical assistance of Kenya to intercept such communications.

(3) A request under this section shall include—
(a) an indication of the authority making the request;
(b) confirmation that a lawful interception order or warrant has been issued in connection with a criminal investigation, if such an order or warrant is required by law;
(c) information for the purpose of identifying the subject of the requested interception;
(d) details of the criminal conduct under investigation;
(e) the desired duration of the interception; and
(f) if possible, the provision of sufficient technical data, in particular the relevant network connection number, communications address or service identifier to ensure that the request can be met.

(4) Where a request has been made under subsection (1)(a) and the immediate transmission of the contents of an intercepted communication is not possible, Kenya shall undertake to comply with the request as though it were made under subsection 1(b).

(5) The information provided under this section shall be confidential and shall be kept in accordance with the provisions of this Act or any other relevant written law.


28. Stored communications

Nothing in this Part shall preclude a requesting state from making a request for legal assistance in accordance with Kenyan law for the provision of stored communications.


29. Interception of items during the course of carriage by a public postal service

For the purpose of a criminal investigation, a requesting state may, in accordance with the requirements of this Act or any other relevant law, make a request to Kenya for the interception of an item during the course of its carriage by a public postal service and immediate transmission of the said item or a copy thereof.


30. Bilateral or multilateral arrangements

Nothing in this Part shall preclude any bilateral or multilateral arrangements for the purpose of facilitating the exploitation of present and future technical possibilities regarding the lawful interception of telecommunications.


31. Preservation of communications data

(1) A requesting state may request Kenya for the preservation of communications data.

(2) A request made under subsection (1) may be directly transmitted to Kenya and shall be executed in accordance with Kenyan law.

(3) A request for the preservation of communications data made under this section shall—
(a) specify the identity of the authority making the request;
(b) contain a brief description of the conduct under investigation;
(c) contain a description of the communications data to be preserved
and its relationship to the investigation or prosecution, and in particular identifying whether the communications data to be preserved includes—
(i) subscriber information;
(ii) traffic data;
(iii) any other information falling within the definition of communications data.
(d) contain a statement that a requesting state intends to submit a
request for legal assistance to obtain the communications data within the period permitted under this section.

(4) The preservation of communications data pursuant to a request made under this section shall be for a period of one hundred and twenty days, pending submission by a requesting state of a request for legal assistance to obtain the preserved communications data however, following the receipt of such a request, the data shall continue to be preserved pending the determination of that request and, if the request is granted, until the data is obtained pursuant to the request for legal assistance.

(5) If the Competent Authority considers that the preservation of communications data pursuant to a request made under this section will not ensure the future availability of the communications data, or will threaten the confidentiality of, or otherwise prejudice the investigation in a requesting state, it shall promptly inform a requesting state, which shall then determine whether the request should nevertheless be executed.

(6) Notwithstanding the grounds for refusal under this Act, a request for the preservation of communications data under this section may be refused only to the extent that it appears to the Central Authority that compliance would be contrary to the laws or Constitution of Kenya, or would prejudice the security, international relations, or other essential public interests of Kenya.


32. Covert electronic surveillance

(1) A request may be made to Kenya from a requesting state for deployment of covert electronic surveillance.

(2) Covert electronic surveillance shall take place in accordance with the procedures provided for under Kenyan law.

(3) Nothing in this section shall preclude a request for assistance involving surveillance, including the use of a tracking device, other than that provided for in this section.

Rome Statute

Article 88 Availability of procedures under national law

States Parties shall ensure that there are procedures available under their national law for all of the forms of cooperation which are specified under this Part.

Article 89 Surrender of persons to the Court

1. The Court may transmit a request for the arrest and surrender of a person, together with the material supporting the request outlined in article 91, to any State on the territory of which that person may be found and shall request the cooperation of that State in the arrest and surrender of such a person. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and the procedure under their national law, comply with requests for arrest and surrender.

Article 93 Other forms of cooperation

1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:

(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;

(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;

(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;

(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;

(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;

(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;

(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;

(h) The execution of searches and seizures;

(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;

(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;

(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and

(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.

Article 99 Execution of requests under articles 93 and 96

1. Requests for assistance shall be executed in accordance with the relevant procedure under the law of the requested State and, unless prohibited by such law, in the manner specified in the request, including following any procedure outlined therein or permitting persons specified in the request to be present at and assist in the execution process.