Enforcement of fines

Estonia

Estonia - Criminal Procedure Code 2003 (2017) EN

Chapter 18
ENTRY INTO FORCE AND ENFORCEMENT OF DECISIONS

Division 2
Enforcement of Punishments

§ 417. Enforcement and execution of pecuniary punishments

(1) A court judgment ordering pecuniary punishment which has entered into force shall be sent to the institution designated by a directive of the Minister of Finance.
[RT I, 28.12.2011, 1 - entry into force 01.01.2012]

(2) If a convicted offender has failed to pay the amount of the pecuniary punishment imposed on him or her to the bank account of the court in full within one month after the entry into force of the court judgment, a copy of the court judgment shall be sent to the bailiff within ten days.
[RT I 2009, 68, 463 - entry into force 01.01.2010]

(3) If a bailiff has sent to the county court an application which indicates that the convicted offender has failed to pay an amount of pecuniary punishment or a fine to the extent of assets by the designated due date or if the terms for the payment of instalments of an amount of pecuniary punishment are not complied with and the term for payment of an amount of pecuniary punishment or a fine to the extent of assets has not been extended or deferred pursuant to the procedure provided for in § 424 of this Code, the judge in charge of execution of court judgments shall decide on the substitution of the pecuniary punishment or fine to the extent of assets pursuant to the procedure provided for in §§ 70 and 71 of the Penal Code or file a claim against the assets of the debtor.
[RT I 2005, 39, 308 - entry into force 01.01.2006]

(4) If an amount of pecuniary punishment has been paid in part, the paid part shall be taken into account upon determination of the duration of the substitutive punishment in proportion to the paid amount. A judge in charge of execution of court judgments shall settle the ordering of substitutive punishment pursuant to the procedure provided for in subsections 432 (1) and (3) of this Code. A copy of the ruling shall be sent to the participants in the proceedings concerned and to the bailiff.
[RT I 2005, 39, 308 - entry into force 01.01.2006]

§ 418. Waiver of enforcement of pecuniary punishment

(1) The judge in charge of execution of court judgments at the county court of the residence of a convicted offender may waive the enforcement of a pecuniary punishment by a ruling if :

1) a sentence of imprisonment is imposed on the convicted offender in another criminal matter and the sentence is enforced ;
2) execution of the pecuniary punishment may endanger the resocialization of the convicted offender ;
3) circumstances provided for in § 416 of this Code exist.

(2) On the bases provided for in subsection (1) of this section, a judge in charge of execution of court judgments may also waive collection of the procedure expenses from the convicted offender.
[RT I 2005, 39, 308 - entry into force 01.01.2006]

Chapter 19
INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Division 5
Recognition and Execution of Judgments of Foreign Courts and Decisions of Other Authorities

§ 477. Scope of assistance
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(5) Mutual recognition of pecuniary punishments and fines is permitted regardless of the punishment of the act pursuant to Estonian law if punishment is prescribed in a Member State of the European Union for the following offences :

1) participation in a criminal organisation ;
2) terrorism ;
3) trafficking in human beings ;
4) sexual exploitation of children and child pornography ;
5) illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances ;
6) illicit trafficking in weapons, ammunition and explosives ;
7) corruption ;
8) fraud, including that affecting the financial interests of the European Communities within the meaning of the Convention of 26 July 1995 on the protection of the European Communities' financial interests ;
9) money laundering ;
10) counterfeiting currency, including of the euro ;
11) computer-related crime,
12) environmental crime, including illicit trafficking in endangered animal species and in endangered plant species and varieties ;
13) facilitation of unauthorised entry and residence ;
14) manslaughter, causing serious damage to health ;
15) illicit trade in human organs and tissue ;
16) kidnapping, unlawful deprivation of liberty and hostage taking ;
17) racism and xenophobia ;
18) organised or armed robbery ;
19) illicit trafficking in cultural goods, including antiques and works of art ;
20) swindling ;
21) extortion ;
22) counterfeiting and piracy of products and trafficking therein ;
23) forgery of administrative documents and trafficking therein ;
24) counterfeiting and forgery of means of payment ;
25) illicit trafficking in hormonal substances and other growth promoters ;
26) illicit trafficking in nuclear or radioactive materials ;
27) trafficking in stolen vehicles ;
28) rape ;
29) arson ;
30) criminal offences which fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court;
31) unlawful seizure of aircraft or ships ;
32) sabotage ;
33) offences against traffic regulations, including offences relating to the requirements for working, rest and driving time and safety requirements for road transport ;
34) smuggling of goods ;
35) offences against intellectual property ;
36) offences against health ;
37) offences of damage to property specified in Subdivision 2 of Division 1 of Chapter 13 of the Penal Code ;
38) theft ;
39) offences established by the issuing State and serving the purpose of implementing obligations arising from instruments adopted under the EC Treaty or under Title VI of the EU Treaty.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

Chapter 19
INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Division 5
Recognition and Execution of Judgments of Foreign Courts and Decisions of Other Authorities

§ 487. Specifications concerning execution of pecuniary punishments, fines to the extent of assets and confiscation imposed by foreign court judgments

(1) Pecuniary punishments and fines to the extent of assets shall be enforced as payments into the revenues of the Estonian state unless the parties have agreed otherwise.

(2) The provisions of this Division apply to confiscated property unless the parties have agreed otherwise.

Chapter 19
INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Division 5
Recognition and Execution of Judgments of Foreign Courts and Decisions of Other Authorities

§ 476. Assistance in recognition and execution of judgments of foreign courts and decisions of other authorities

Assistance may be provided to a requesting state in the execution of a punishment or any other sanction imposed for an offence if a corresponding request together with the court judgment or a decision of another authority which has entered into force or an authenticated copy thereof has been submitted to the Ministry of Justice.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

§ 477. Scope of assistance
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(1) In addition to the conditions provided for in § 436 of this Code, assistance shall not be provided to a requesting state in the execution of a punishment or any other sanction imposed in the requesting state if :

1) the court judgment which is the basis for the request has not entered into force ;
2) the judgment was not made by an independent and impartial court ;
3) the judgment was made on default ;
4) the right of defence was not ensured to the accused or the criminal proceedings were not conducted in a language understandable to him or her ;
5) the act for the commission of which a punishment or any other sanction was imposed is not punishable as a criminal offence pursuant to the Estonian Penal Code or the Penal Code does not prescribe such punishment or sanction, except for the offences provided for in subsection (5) of this section ;
6) an Estonian court has convicted the person on the same charges, or commencement of criminal proceedings with regard to him or her has been refused or the criminal proceedings have been terminated ;
7) pursuant to Estonian law, the limitation period for the execution of the court judgment or the decision of another authority has expired ;
8) the judgement or decision has been made with regard to a natural person who, pursuant to Estonian law, cannot be punished due to his or her age for the acts in connection of which the judgement or decision was made ;
9) the judgement or decision has been made with regard to a person who enjoys diplomatic immunity on the basis of clause 4 2) of this Code ;
10) the pecuniary punishment or fine is equal to or less than 70 euros;
[RT I 2010, 22, 108 - entry into force 01.01.2011]
11) a certificate is not produced, is incomplete or manifestly does not correspond to the court judgement or the decision of another authority.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(2) If a person has been sentenced to imprisonment in a foreign state, a request for assistance in the execution of the punishment may be satisfied if the person is a citizen of Estonia and the written consent of the person to his or her surrender in order to continue service of the punishment in Estonia has been appended to the request. The consent shall not be withdrawn.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(3) If a court judgment made with regard to a citizen of the Republic of Estonia, or an administrative act relating to such judgment contains an order to expel the person from the state immediately after his or her release from imprisonment, the person may be surrendered without his or her consent.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(4) If a judgment on confiscation made in a requesting state concerns a person not subject to the proceedings, the judgment shall not be executed if :

1) such third party has not been given the opportunity to protect his or her interests, or
2) the judgment is in conflict with a decision made in the same matter subject to civil procedure pursuant to Estonian law.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(5) Mutual recognition of pecuniary punishments and fines is permitted regardless of the punishment of the act pursuant to Estonian law if punishment is prescribed in a Member State of the European Union for the following offences :

1) participation in a criminal organisation ;
2) terrorism ;
3) trafficking in human beings ;
4) sexual exploitation of children and child pornography ;
5) illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances ;
6) illicit trafficking in weapons, ammunition and explosives ;
7) corruption ;
8) fraud, including that affecting the financial interests of the European Communities within the meaning of the Convention of 26 July 1995 on the protection of the European Communities' financial interests ;
9) money laundering ;
10) counterfeiting currency, including of the euro ;
11) computer-related crime,
12) environmental crime, including illicit trafficking in endangered animal species and in endangered plant species and varieties ;
13) facilitation of unauthorised entry and residence ;
14) manslaughter, causing serious damage to health ;
15) illicit trade in human organs and tissue ;
16) kidnapping, unlawful deprivation of liberty and hostage taking ;
17) racism and xenophobia ;
18) organised or armed robbery ;
19) illicit trafficking in cultural goods, including antiques and works of art ;
20) swindling ;
21) extortion ;
22) counterfeiting and piracy of products and trafficking therein ;
23) forgery of administrative documents and trafficking therein ;
24) counterfeiting and forgery of means of payment ;
25) illicit trafficking in hormonal substances and other growth promoters ;
26) illicit trafficking in nuclear or radioactive materials ;
27) trafficking in stolen vehicles ;
28) rape ;
29) arson ;
30) criminal offences which fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court;
31) unlawful seizure of aircraft or ships ;
32) sabotage ;
33) offences against traffic regulations, including offences relating to the requirements for working, rest and driving time and safety requirements for road transport ;
34) smuggling of goods ;
35) offences against intellectual property ;
36) offences against health ;
37) offences of damage to property specified in Subdivision 2 of Division 1 of Chapter 13 of the Penal Code ;
38) theft ;
39) offences established by the issuing State and serving the purpose of implementing obligations arising from instruments adopted under the EC Treaty or under Title VI of the EU Treaty.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

§ 478. Proceedings conducted by Ministry of Justice concerning requests for execution of court judgments submitted by foreign states

(1) The Ministry of Justice shall verify whether a request is in compliance with the requirements and has the required supporting documents and, in the case of compliance, shall immediately forward the request to the Public Prosecutor's Office.
[RT I 2008, 19, 132 - entry into force 23.05.2008]

(1 1) The central authority upon execution of a decision on pecuniary punishment or fine imposed in a foreign state is the Ministry of Justice who shall verify whether the certificate meets the requirements and shall forward the judgement together with the certificate immediately to Harju County Court and the Public Prosecutor's Office.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(2) The surrender of or refusal to surrender a person sentenced to imprisonment shall be decided by the Minister of Justice.
[RT I 2004, 46, 329 - entry into force 01.07.2004]

(3) Execution of a court judgment by which a person has been sentenced to imprisonment in a requesting state shall be continued without amending the judgment if the term of the imprisonment imposed on the person in the requesting state corresponds to the punishment prescribed for the same criminal offence by the Estonian Penal Code.
[RT I 2004, 46, 329 - entry into force 01.07.2004]

(4) If necessary, additional information is requested from the foreign state through the Ministry of Justice and a term for reply is determined.
[RT I 2004, 46, 329 - entry into force 01.07.2004]

§ 479. Taking into custody and holding in custody for purposes of execution of foreign court judgment

(1) If a request for the execution of a court judgment is received from a foreign state, the person staying in Estonia with regard to whom execution of the court judgment by which the person has been sentenced to imprisonment is requested may be taken into custody at the request of the public prosecutor and on the basis of a ruling of a preliminary investigation judge if there is reason to believe that the person evades execution of the court judgment.

(2) A person shall not be taken into custody if it is evident that execution of the court judgment is impossible.

(3) A person shall be released from custody if within three months as of his or her taking into custody the court has not made a judgment on the recognition and enforcement of the court judgment of the requesting state.

(4) An arrest warrant may be appealed by the person taken into custody, his or her counsel, or the Prosecutor's Office.

§ 480. Participation of counsel in recognition and execution of judgments of foreign courts

Participation of a counsel in recognition and execution of a judgment of a foreign court is mandatory. The counsel in recognition and execution of a judgment of a foreign court must be an advocate.
[RT I 2008, 19, 132 - entry into force 23.05.2008]

§ 481. Jurisdiction over recognition of foreign court judgments and decisions of other authorities

The Harju County Court shall decide on the recognition of foreign court judgments and decisions of other authorities.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

§ 482. Court procedure for recognition of foreign court judgments

(1) Recognition of a foreign court judgment shall be decided by a judge sitting alone. A court session where recognition of a foreign court judgment is heard shall be held within thirty days as of the receipt of the request by the court.

(2) If necessary, additional information is requested from a foreign state through the Ministry of Justice and a term for reply is determined.

(3) Persons not subject to the proceedings whose interests are concerned by a court judgment may be summoned to a court session if they are in Estonia. In deciding on confiscation, the participation of a third party is mandatory.

(4) The participation of the punished person and a prosecutor in a court session is mandatory.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(5) Minutes shall be taken of court sessions.

§ 483. Court rulings made in recognition and enforcement of foreign court judgments

(1) In deciding on the recognition of a foreign court judgment, a court shall make one of the following rulings :
1) to declare execution of the foreign court judgment admissible, or
2) to declare execution of the foreign court judgment inadmissible.

(2) If execution of a court judgment is not permitted, the court shall send a copy of the court ruling to the Ministry of Justice. The Ministry of Justice shall notify the foreign state of the refusal to execute a foreign court judgment.

§ 484. Specification of punishment imposed in foreign state

(1) If a court declares execution of a foreign court judgment admissible, the court shall determine the punishment to be executed in Estonia. The punishment imposed in the foreign state shall be compared to the punishment prescribed for the same act by the Estonian Penal Code.

(2) A specified punishment shall by nature as much as possible correspond to the punishment imposed in the foreign state. The court shall take into account the degree of the punishment imposed in the foreign state but the punishment shall not exceed the maximum rate prescribed by the sanction specified in the corresponding section of the Estonian Penal Code.

(3) If the term of a punishment has not been determined in a foreign state, the court shall determine the punishment in accordance with the principles of the Penal Code.

(4) It is not permitted to aggravate a punishment imposed in a foreign state.

(5) If probation is applied with regard to a person or he or she is released on parole in a foreign state, the court shall apply the provisions of the Estonian Penal Code.

(5 1) If a convicted offender provides proof of payment of a sum of money in part or in full, the Ministry of Justice shall consult the competent authority of the foreign state who made the decision. The part of a pecuniary punishment or fine paid in another state shall be deducted from the collectable sum of the pecuniary punishment or fine.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

(6) Pecuniary punishments, fines to the extent of assets and amounts subject to confiscation shall be converted, if necessary, into euros on the basis of the exchange rate applicable on the date of specification of the punishment.
[RT I 2010, 22, 108 - entry into force 01.01.2011]

(7) In the specification of a punishment, the time spent in imprisonment or held in custody on the basis of § 479 of this Code in a foreign state shall be included in the term of the punishment.

§ 484 1. Substitution of pecuniary punishment imposed in foreign state

If a pecuniary punishment imposed in a foreign state cannot be executed, the court may substitute the punishment with the permission of the requesting state pursuant to the procedure provided for in § 70 of the Penal Code taking into account that the term of imprisonment or community service shall not exceed the maximum term prescribed in the requesting state.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

§ 485. Ruling on specification of judgment of foreign court

(1) A court shall decide the specification of a foreign court judgment by a ruling.

(2) A ruling shall set out the extent to which a foreign court judgment is recognised and specify the punishment to be executed in Estonia.

(3) A court shall send a copy of a ruling which has entered into force to the punishment register and the Minister of Justice. The Ministry of Justice shall notify the foreign state of compliance with the request and of the specified punishment.

(4) Appeals may be filed against a ruling provided for in subsection (1) of this section by the accused, counsel, third parties and the Prosecutor's Office.

§ 486. Execution of specified punishments

(1) Punishments shall be executed pursuant to the procedure provided by Estonian legislation.

(2) A punishment shall not be enforced if the competent authority of the foreign state gives notification that the circumstances which were the basis for imposition of the punishment have ceased to exist .

§ 487. Specifications concerning execution of pecuniary punishments, fines to the extent of assets and confiscation imposed by foreign court judgments

(1) Pecuniary punishments and fines to the extent of assets shall be enforced as payments into the revenues of the Estonian state unless the parties have agreed otherwise.

(2) The provisions of this Division apply to confiscated property unless the parties have agreed otherwise.

§ 487 1. Termination of enforcement of court judgement of foreign state

Enforcement of a court judgement of a foreign state shall be terminated immediately when the requesting state notifies of granting pardon or amnesty or a request for the conversion of the sentence or any other decision on the basis of which the court judgement cannot be enforced.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

§ 487 2. Recognition and execution of pecuniary punishments and fines imposed by other authorities of foreign states

The provisions of this Division concerning the recognition and execution of judgments of foreign courts apply to recognition and execution of pecuniary punishments or fines imposed by authorities of foreign states other than courts.
[RT I 2008, 33, 201 - entry into force 28.07.2008]

Estonia - Penal Code 2001 (2015) EN

Part 1
GENERAL PART

Chapter 3
TYPES AND TERMS OF PUNISHMENTS

Division 1
Principal Punishments Imposed for Criminal Offences

§ 44. Pecuniary punishment

(1) For a criminal offence, the court may impose a pecuniary punishment of 30 to 500 daily rates.

(2) The court shall calculate the daily rate of a pecuniary punishment on the basis of the average daily income of the convicted offender. The court may reduce the daily rate due to special circumstances, or increase the rate on the basis of the standard of living of the convicted offender. The daily rate applied shall not be less than the minimum daily rate. The minimum daily rate shall be 3.20 euros.
[ - entry into force 01.01.2011]

(3) Average daily income shall be calculated on the basis of the income subject to income tax received by the convicted offender during the year immediately preceding the year in which criminal proceedings were commenced against the convicted offender or, if the data pertaining to such year are not available, during the year preceding such year, less the income tax.

(4) Daily rates shall be calculated to the accuracy of ten cents.
[ - entry into force 01.01.2011]

(5) If at the time of commission of an act, the person is less than 18 years of age, the court may impose a pecuniary punishment of thirty up to two hundred and fifty daily rates. A pecuniary punishment shall not be imposed on a person of less than 18 years of age if he or she does not have any independent income.

(6) A pecuniary punishment may be imposed as a supplementary punishment together with imprisonment unless imprisonment has been substituted by community service.

(7) A pecuniary punishment shall not be imposed as a supplementary punishment together with a fine to the extent of assets.

(8) In case of a legal person, the court may impose a pecuniary punishment of 3200 to 16,000,000 euros. A pecuniary punishment may be imposed on a legal person also as a supplementary punishment together with compulsory dissolution.
[ - entry into force 01.01.2011]

(9) In the cases provided for in the Special Part of this Code, the court may impose a pecuniary punishment on a legal person, the amount of which is calculated as a percentage of the turnover of the legal person during the financial year immediately preceding the year in which the criminal proceedings were commenced or in case the person has operated for less than a year, during the year of commencing the criminal proceedings. In such case, the upper limit of the pecuniary punishment imposed shall not exceed the upper limit of the pecuniary punishment provided for in subsection (8) of this section.
[ - entry into force 27.02.2010]

Rome Statute

Article 109 Enforcement of fines and forfeiture measures

1. States Parties shall give effect to fines or forfeitures ordered by the Court under Part 7, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties, and in accordance with the procedure of their national law.

2. If a State Party is unable to give effect to an order for forfeiture, it shall take measures to recover the value of the proceeds, property or assets ordered by the Court to be forfeited, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.

3. Property, or the proceeds of the sale of real property or, where appropriate, the sale of other property, which is obtained by a State Party as a result of its enforcement of a judgement of the Court shall be transferred to the Court.