Cooperation under procedures of national law

Republic of Malta

Malta - Criminal Code 1854 (2014) EN

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title III POWERS OF ENTRY, SEARCH AND SEIZURE UNDER WARRANT

355E. (1) Saving the cases where the law provides otherwise, no police officer shall, without a warrant from a Magistrate, enter any premises, house, building or enclosure for the purpose of effecting any search therein or arresting any person who has committed or is reasonably suspected of having committed or of being about to commit any offence unless -

(a) the offence is a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act and there is imminent danger that the said person may escape or that the corpus delicti or the means of proving the offence will be suppressed; or

(b) the person is detected in the very act of committing a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act; or

(c) the intervention of the Police is necessary in order to prevent the commission of a crime other than a crime punishable under the Press Act; or

(d) the entry is necessary for the execution of any warrant or order issued by any other competent authority in the cases prescribed by law; or

(e) the arrest is for the purpose of apprehending a person who is unlawfully at large after escaping from lawful arrest or detention; or

(f) the entry is necessary for purposes of:
(i) executing the arrest, or ascertaining the whereabouts, of a person in respect of whom an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System and there is an imminent danger that the said person may escape; or
(ii) discovering any property in respect of which an alert has been entered in the Schengen
Information System and there is an imminent danger that the property may be concealed, lost, damaged, altered or destroyed.

(2) The expression "enclosure" does not include any plot of land enclosed by rubble walls.

(3) A warrant may also be issued by a Magistrate as mentioned in subarticle (1) for the purpose of:
(a) effecting the arrest or ascertaining the whereabouts of a person in respect of whom an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System; or
(b) discovering and seizing any property in respect of which an alert has been entered in the Schengen Information System.


355F. In cases where a police officer is empowered to enter into any of the places mentioned in the last preceding article, it shall be lawful for such officer to open or break any door or window, if, after giving notice of his office and object, he cannot otherwise obtain entry.


355G. (1) Any entry and search warrant issued under this Sub¬title and any search or seizure made under the provisions of this Sub-title shall not extend to legal privilege or to any excluded material.

(2) An entry and search warrant issued under this Sub-title shall be deemed to have been granted to the police officer or officers executing it.

(3) Without prejudice to the right of obtaining a new warrant for the same purpose, an entry and search warrant may not be executed after the lapse of one month from the date of issue.


355H. No warrant of entry and search may be executed after sunset unless the Magistrate has otherwise authorised in the warrant, or unless the executing Police officer has reasonable cause to believe that the purpose of the entry and search will be frustrated if the execution of the warrant is delayed.


355I. The executing officer shall hand over a copy of the warrant to the person occupying and present at the place searched or to any other person who appears to the said officer to be in charge of the same place and who happens to be present during the search. If there is no person present who appears to the executing officer to be in charge of the premises the copy of the warrant shall be left in an easily visible place on the premises.


355J. A search under a warrant may only be a search to the extent required for the purpose for which the warrant was issued:
Provided that if, in the course of the search, offences other than the offence or offences mentioned in the warrant are discovered, the search may extend to the extent required for the purposes of such other offences.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title V
SEIZURE AND RETENTION

355P. The Police, when lawfully on any premises, may seize anything which is on the premises if they have reasonable grounds for believing that it has been obtained in consequence of the commission of an offence or that it is evidence in relation to an offence or it is the subject of an alert in the Schengen Information System and that it is necessary to seize it to prevent it being concealed, lost, damaged, altered or destroyed.


355Q. The Police may, in addition to the power of seizing a computer machine, require any information which is contained in a computer to be delivered in a form in which it can be taken away and in which it is visible and legible.


355R. The Police shall always issue to the person on the premises or in control of the thing seized a receipt for anything seized and on request by any such person, the Police shall, against payment and within a reasonable time, supply to him photographs, or a film, video recording or electronic image or copies of the thing seized, unless the investigating officer has reasonable grounds for believing that this would be prejudicial to the investigation or to any criminal proceedings that may be instituted as a result thereof.


355S. (1) Anything which has been lawfully seized by the Police may be retained so long as is necessary in all the circumstances.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the aforesaid, anything lawfully seized by the Police under this Code may be retained for use as evidence at the trial or for forensic examination or any other aspect of the investigation, or in order to establish the thing’s lawful owner.

(3) The Commissioner shall provide for the proper custody of anything seized.


355T. A person who is the rightful owner of a thing seized and retained may, unless criminal proceedings in the course of which the thing seized has been exhibited or is to be exhibited are pending before any court, make an application to a Magistrate for its restitution, and the Magistrate may, after hearing the Police, by a decree order its release either unconditionally, or under such conditions as may be necessary to preserve the evidential aspects of the thing.


355U. Unless a thing is liable to forfeiture, nothing shall be retained if a photograph, film, video recording or electronic image or a copy of the thing would be sufficient:
Provided that before releasing the thing the Police may, where they deem so necessary, apply to a Magistrate for a repertus to be drawn up and the provisions of Title II of Part II of Book Second of this Code shall apply.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title VI
POWERS OF ARREST AND DETENTION

355Z. The general arrest conditions are -

(a) that the identity of the person is unknown or cannot be
readily ascertained by the police officer; or

(b) there is a doubt whether the particulars furnished by the person are true; or

(c) that the person has not furnished a satisfactory address for service, or there are doubts about whether the address provided is satisfactory for service, or that at least some other person may according to law receive service on his behalf at the address given; or

(d) that the arrest is necessary to prevent the person -
(i) causing physical harm to himself or to any other person; or
(ii) suffering physical injury; or
(iii) causing loss or damage to property; or
(iv) committing an offence against public decency; or
(v) causing an unlawful obstruction on any public road; or

(e) that the police officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the arrest is necessary to protect a child or any other vulnerable person.


355AB. The officer or any other person authorised by law making an arrest shall not use any harshness, bond or other means of restraint unless indispensably required to secure, or rendered necessary by the insubordination of the person arrested.


355AC. (1) When a person is arrested, the arrest is not lawful unless the person arrested is informed that he is under arrest, even though the arrest may be obvious.

(2) The arrest is not lawful unless the person arrested is informed at the time of his arrest or detention, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention:
Provided that if an interpreter is necessary and is not readily available or if it is otherwise impracticable to comply with the provisions of this sub-article at the time of the person’s arrest or detention, such provisions shall be complied with as soon as practicable:
Provided further that, in any case, where the arrest is made by a private person under the provisions of article 355V the giving of the information may be delayed until the person arrested is taken over by the Police.


355AD. (1) Where, in the course of an investigation, a person attends voluntarily at, or accompanies a police officer to, a police station or office, that person shall be free to leave at any time, unless and until he is informed that he is under arrest.

(2) Where an inspector of Police has a reasonable suspicion that the person who attended voluntarily at the police station or office may have committed an offence subject to imprisonment, he may arrest such person forthwith without warrant and inform him accordingly. The time of the arrest shall be immediately recorded and immediate notice thereof shall be given to a Magistrate.

(3) The Police may, orally or by a notice in writing, require any person to attend at the police station or other place indicated by them to give such information and to produce such documents as the Police may require and if that person so attends at the police station or place indicated to him he shall be deemed to have attended that police station or other place voluntarily. The written notice referred to in this subarticle shall contain a warning of the consequences of failure to comply, as are mentioned in subarticle (5).

(4) Any person who is considered by the police to be in possession of any information or document relevant to any investigation has a legal obligation to comply with a request from the police to attend at a police station to give as required any such information or document:
Provided that no person is bound to supply any information or document which tends to incriminate him.

(5) A person who fails to comply with a notice in writing as is referred to in subarticle (3) or who fails, upon being so requested, even if only orally, to accompany voluntarily a police officer to a police station or other place indicated by the police officer for any purpose mentioned in the said subarticle
(3) shall be guilty of a contravention punishable with detention and shall be liable to be arrested immediately under warrant.

(6) The notice mentioned in subarticle (3) may be served with urgency in cases where the interests of justice so require.

(7) A person who attends voluntarily as mentioned in subarticle (3) may be kept apart from any other person, but shall not be kept in any place normally used for the detention of arrested persons.


355AE. (1) When a police officer arrests a person at a place other than a police station the arrested person shall be taken to the nearest police station and where the arresting officer is an officer below the rank of inspector he shall forthwith report the arrest to an officer not below the rank of inspector. In any case the inspector or officer in charge of that police station shall also be informed.

(2) Where there are grounds for the continuation of the arrest the person arrested shall be taken to a designated police station as soon as practicable and in no case later than six hours from the time of the arrest.

(3) The taking of an arrested person to a police station in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this article may be delayed if that person’s presence is required elsewhere for the purpose of any investigation which may be necessary.

(4) Where a person is released following arrest the police officer ordering release shall record in writing the fact stating reasons.


355AF. (1) A police officer may immediately search the person arrested:
(a) if the police officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the arrested person may present a danger to himself or others; or
(b) for anything which the arrested person might use to assist him to escape from custody; or
(c) for anything which might be evidence related to an offence.

(2) The provisions of article 353 of this Code shall apply to searches under this article.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title VII
WARRANTS

355AG. (1) Saving the provisions of article 666, it is the duty of the Police to execute any warrant or order of arrest or search that may, in the cases prescribed by law, be issued or given by any other competent authority.

(2) Any such warrant or order shall set forth the nature of the offence, the name of the person, if known, by whom the offence is alleged to have been committed and, in the case of a search warrant, it shall indicate the place where the search is to be carried out.

(3) Once a warrant or order of arrest or search has been issued any police officer may execute the warrant or order.


355AH. (1) Whenever according to law the carrying out of an act by the police requires the issue of a warrant by a Magistrate a police officer may apply in person to a Magistrate requesting the issue of the appropriate warrant stating the grounds for the request and giving the Magistrate all such information that will enable the Magistrate to decide on the request. Before deciding whether to issue the warrant the Magistrate may require the police officer to confirm on oath the information supplied by him and the warrant shall only be issued upon the Magistrate being satisfied that sufficient grounds for the issue of the warrant exist.

(2) In cases of urgency, the request for the issue of the warrant and the warrant may be communicated even by facsimile:
Provided that, as soon as practicable, the original warrant shall be delivered for record purposes.

(3) Any warrant issued by a Magistrate shall be issued in favour of the Commissioner of Police and may be executed by any police officer.

(4) Whenever a police officer requests the issue of a warrant of arrest or search from a Magistrate in accordance with the provisions of this Code and the Magistrate refuses to issue the warrant the Police may request the issue of the same warrant from a Judge who ordinarily sits in the Criminal Court.


355AI. Except in the case of a warrant transmitted by facsimile, any warrant shall be drawn upon in three signed copies one of which shall be retained by the Magistrate while the others shall be delivered to the police officer who shall retain one copy for his records and shall cause the other one to be served on the person entitled to be served with it:
Provided that where a police officer comes upon a person against whom a warrant of arrest has been issued and, although not in possession of a copy of the warrant, the police officer knows that the warrant has been so issued, the officer shall arrest that person and shall serve him with the copy of the warrant at the first opportunity.


355AJ. (1) Where any person is arrested, whether with or without a warrant, the arresting police officer or his superior shall, as soon as practicable and unless the person arrested has been released within six hours from arrest, inform a Magistrate, giving all details as to time and place where the person is being held.

(2) The Magistrate may order that the person arrested be transferred to another place with immediate effect.

(3) Any person arrested in pursuance of any provision of this Code and who has not been brought before a court within forty-eight hours of his arrest shall be released.


355AK. Any order of a competent authority touching on the rights of the individual arising from the provisions of this sub-title shall be carried out without delay, and for such purpose may be communicated even by facsimile or telephone, under such conditions as to guarantee its authenticity.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title I Of the Powers and Duties of the Executive Police in respect of Criminal Prosecutions

Sub-title X
TAKING OF SAMPLES, FINGERPRINTING AND OTHER INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

355AV. The investigating officer may in person, by application or by facsimile, request a Magistrate to authorise the necessary procedure -
(a) where he has reasonable grounds to require the taking of intimate samples from the person arrested; or
(b) to take photographs, a film, video recording or electronic image of intimate parts of the body of the person arrested; or
(c) where the person arrested withholds his consent for any procedure which the investigating officer may carry out according to law with the consent of the person arrested:
Provided that where the request falls under paragraph (a), the provisions of article 355AW shall apply and, if the request falls under paragraph (b), the provisions of article 355AP shall mutatis mutandis apply.


355AW. Subject to the provisions of articles 355AV and 355AX, an intimate sample may be taken from a person arrested only if his appropriate consent is given.


355AX. (1) Upon a request under article 355AV(a), the Magistrate shall obtain all such information from the investigating officer to enable him to decide on whether the request is justified or not.

(2) Where the Magistrate decides that the request is justified he shall visit the person arrested to request his consent and before asking for his consent he shall explain to him:
(a) the nature of the request and the reasons thereof;
(b) the consequences of giving his consent and of refusing consent as provided in article 355AZ; and
(c) that he is entitled to consult a lawyer or legal procurator before deciding whether or not to give his consent.

(3) Where the person arrested requests to consult a lawyer or legal procurator under subarticle (2) the magistrate shall make a record of the fact, date and time of the request and, subject to the provisions of subarticle (4) shall allow the person arrested to consult with a lawyer or legal procurator for such time as the magistrate may deem appropriate in the circumstances of the case.

(4) The magistrate may, on a justified objection by the Police, delay any communication with an advocate or legal procurator if the interests of justice so require or when any of the events mentioned in article 355AT(5) is likely to occur if such communication is allowed immediately:
Provided that where the person arrested has requested to consult a lawyer or legal procurator his consent can only be requested after such consultation has taken place.


355AY. Where an intimate sample is to be taken under these articles the provisions of article 355AP shall apply.


355AZ. Where the appropriate consent to the taking of an intimate sample from a person was refused without a good cause, in any proceedings against the person for an offence, those who have to judge of the facts may draw such inferences from the refusal as appear proper and the refusal may, on the basis of such inferences, be treated as, or as capable of amounting to corroboration of any evidence against the person in relation to which the refusal is material.


355BA. (1) The investigating officer may, with the appropriate consent in writing of the person arrested, cause to be taken:
(a) fingerprints, palm-prints from the person arrested;
(b) photographs of the person arrested or of non-intimate parts of his body;
(c) non-intimate samples from the person arrested.

(2) The person arrested may request in writing that:
(a) his fingerprints, palm-prints or other prints,
(b) photographs of his person or of non-intimate parts of his body,
(c) non-intimate samples from his person,
be taken and any such request shall be complied with by the investigating officer with the assistance of any competent person as may be necessary.

(3) The person arrested may also request in writing the investigating officer to carry out any of the procedures mentioned in article 355AV(a) and (b), and any such request shall be referred without delay to a Magistrate. The Magistrate shall authorise the procedure requested after verifying the request made by the person arrested and the provisions of article 355AP shall apply where appropriate.


355BB. Samples from a person other than a person arrested may only be taken with that person’s prior consent in writing:
Provided that for the taking of an intimate sample a Magistrate’s authorisation must also be obtained upon application.


355BC. The provisions of article 355BA shall mutatis mutandis apply to any person, not being an arrested person, who makes a request for the carrying out in his respect of any procedure referred to in that article provided the request is made in writing and contains a declaration that the person making the request has reason to believe that there is the likelihood that the failure to carry out the
requested procedure is likely to result in his being arrested or detained.

BOOK SECOND
LAWS OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I
OF THE AUTHORITIES TO WHICH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS ENTRUSTED

Title IV Of the Criminal Court

443. (1) On the day and at the time appointed for the hearing of the cause or of any question incidental thereto, the accused shall be put, without any restraint, in the place appointed for the purpose.

(2) If the accused is not in custody, he shall be required to appear by means of a summons, and, in case of his non-appearance, an order shall be made for his arrest; if he is in custody, he shall be brought to the said place in such manner as may be necessary in order to prevent his escape.

(3) If the accused attempts acts of violence, all necessary measures shall be taken to prevent such acts.

Rome Statute

Article 88 Availability of procedures under national law

States Parties shall ensure that there are procedures available under their national law for all of the forms of cooperation which are specified under this Part.

Article 89 Surrender of persons to the Court

1. The Court may transmit a request for the arrest and surrender of a person, together with the material supporting the request outlined in article 91, to any State on the territory of which that person may be found and shall request the cooperation of that State in the arrest and surrender of such a person. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and the procedure under their national law, comply with requests for arrest and surrender.

Article 93 Other forms of cooperation

1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:

(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;

(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to the Court;

(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;

(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;

(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts before the Court;

(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;

(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and examination of grave sites;

(h) The execution of searches and seizures;

(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and documents;

(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;

(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and

(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.

Article 99 Execution of requests under articles 93 and 96

1. Requests for assistance shall be executed in accordance with the relevant procedure under the law of the requested State and, unless prohibited by such law, in the manner specified in the request, including following any procedure outlined therein or permitting persons specified in the request to be present at and assist in the execution process.